I. Переведите следующие словосочетания:
Refers to the class of diseases, affects the cardiovascular system, similar causes, mechanisms, and treatments, depending on the organ system, considerable overlap, face high and increasing rates, heart problems are detected, the underlying cause, having progressed for decades, increased emphasis, preventing atherosclerosis, modifying risk factors, avoidance of smoking.
Урок 17. Онкологические заболевания: Рак
(Oncologic diseases: Cancer)
|malignant neoplasm – злокачественная опу-холь cell - клетка to display - показывать invasion - внедрение adjacent - прилегающий to spread – распростра-няться via - через properties - качества to differentiate – диффе-ренцировать benign – доброкачест-венный a tumor - опухоль research - исследование||to invade - внедряться concerned - связан fetus - зародыш to increase – увеличи-вать histologic – гистологи-ческий biopsy specimen – образ-цы биопсии initial indication – пер-вый признак radiographic imaging abnormalities – радио-графическое отображение аномалий cured - вылечены varieties – разновид-ности|
Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize. Most cancers form a tumor but some, like leukemia, do not. The branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer is oncology.
Cancer may affect people at all ages, even fetuses, but the risk for most varieties increases with age. Cancer causes about 13% of all human deaths. According to the American Cancer Society, 7.6 million people died from cancer in the world during 2007. Cancers can affect all animals.
Diagnosis usually requires the histologic examination of a tissue biopsy specimen by a pathologist, although the initial indication of malignancy can be symptoms or radiographic imaging abnormalities. Most cancers can be treated and some cured, depending on the specific type, location, and stage. Once diagnosed, cancer is usually treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As research develops, treatments are becoming more specific for different varieties of cancer.
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