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poaoe pae aa eoea.

E.. Koaec coe yee po ceyy cxey ypypooo pa aa:

1. Opaoae ax o epexo x ae yp, pacooee o copoa epeeo oooo yp, opaoae aaa xpycaa - 3 e.

2. epepoa cea. oeeex epe epepecx eax aoo oaa. Opaoae poo ca peoo epa - 4 e.

3. Booee cocyco ooo, poo epoe - 5 e.

4. Booee acyopaoo epa poeocx cocyo, epoo eoepaoo ceooo ea cea. oppoae poo - 6 e.

5. Booee aaa e. Pae cpo pay. Opaoae cex aae - 7 e.

6. Pae cep. Booee poaoo pa xpycaa. oppoae ceo ee - 8 e.

7. Cpacae pae e. ceoee cocex cocyo ceooo ea. oee opoo ceooo ea -9e.

8. epepoa pex eo a ao oo - 10 e.

9. oppoae pay apoo ea - 11 e.

10. Ope cex ye o ocoy paoy - 20-28 e.

11. ceoee paoo epa oepa apep ceooo ea. Paeee cpaex e - 28 e.

12. Coepecoae cex cpyyp aa - 32-36 e.


Heocpece peeo ye oaoo ec aoe oo c eo pao aapao.

Be c po peca, oa, cca, cee opa, opa aa c ee coep (poe aoo oa) coca a pao aapa aa.Tep aoe oo opeee opy aa, a cepecy. B eceoc aoe oo e ee pao eoepeco op apa. a eo caao oc paa 24 , opoaoo 23,5-23,6 , paoo - 23-23,3 .

T.o., a a cea ce o epaoy apae.

aoe oo coco 3 oooe, opyax ypee popae peoe cpe aa. peee aae aoo oa bulbus oculi (bulbus - yoa) yao opaae ocooe pacooee eo oooe, oepoe o ooe py pyy.

Kae e o ooo:

1) apya poa oooa (tunica fibrosa bulbi),

2) cocyca, cpe oooa yea pa (tunica vasculosa bulbi),

3) ceaa ype oooa aa (retina).

Hapya oooa aa pecaea pooe cepo. Pooa(cornea) pecae coo epe oe apyo poo ooo, aae 1\6 ee poeoc. Oco y poo c:

1) aa (a ac poo ooo aa),

2) oeca (pooa yacye peoe ceox ye, ca ee peoe cpee paa 40 op).

opoa aep poo cocae 11-12 , epa -10 . C opaco opoa aep poo eec cey opao: y oopoeoo opoa aep poo cocae -9, 1 o - 11, 3 oa - 11, 14 oa aee - 11-12.

eee aepa poo ee onoe ecoe aee cy coo ax coco a poopea, eaoopea, aep poo eec ae p poeo ayoe.

cooec pooe paa> 5 coe:

1. e. Poo e oe ceye y

1) ocoecy - peypye ocyee oc co poo,

2) xaey - ocyece ocyee copoa pooy,

3) oecy - oeceae epaoc popaoc oepxoc poo,

4) eoecy - a ce cpo peeepa aoe ee ae.


2. Hapya opaa epaa - oyeoa epaa pecae coo eccpyypoe opaoae, aca, e peeeppye p opee.

3. Coceoe eeco poo. Coco coeeoax ac, pacooex pa pa, ey oop axoc yo.

4. a opaa epaa eceeoa epaa.

Xapaepo ee ocoeoc ec peceoc o ooe xec aea, o ec apepo o epe poopao, xopoo peeeppye.

5. a e oe. o 1 co ocx ecyox paecx eo, oo peax py pyy. oe oe y ocoeco epa, p opee e peeeppye.

Pooa oooa aeea po coc, oco oopx c:

1) popaoc. popaoc poo oycoea

- paoc pacooe ee cpyypx eeo,

- ocyce cocyo,

- opeee poe coepae aa pooe,

- oao oaaee peoe aco poo, yoa epx ooo, oope pooe ep eoy oooy.

2) cepoc,

3) epaoc,

4) aoc,

5) aa oepxoc,

6) epaoc,

7) coa aa yceoc (poe oo, pooa oaae oeo eepaypo yceoc). Ka ac ae o epoe oyee, oa a oaae yca ae oe aea copa.

...

ae poo - eccocycoo opaoa ocyecec a ce paeo eco ce epex apx apep, a epee aep, oac copoa oyxa ce. a oocea opoaoc poo o eeo po aopo caaec a epecae poo p eax.

Pooa oyae ycey epa o 1e pooo epa poecy caecy epa.


Bcoa yceoc poo ooc ee epa c ea, cco oooo ceo eeo oycoae ooee oeo aoo peeca p papae poo.

Cepa (sclea) aae 5\6 ce apyo ooo aoo oa. Hecop a oopooc ocox cpyypx eeo poo cep, oce ooc ea popaoc ee e e, o oycoae ee aae eoa oooa. oopoeoo cepa aca, co ee poceae epoaa ype oooa, ooy cepa oopoeoo pecaec oyoao. C opaco cepa caoc epopao po. B oo opace cece ooe o cepa popeae eoa oeo caoc ee oee po.

Cepa oe ceye y:

1) pae ay po aae aoe oo o oec opeax aopo,

2) cy ceeo ppee apyx aa,

3) yacye oepa op aa,

4) oeceae ococo oaooyca.

Cepa ea coce cocya, ee ae oeceaec pooa ee cocya.

ycey epa cepa oyae o 1 e pooo epa, caece ooa o epxeo eoo caecoo ya.

Cocyca, cpe oooa, cocyc yea pa aa (tunica vasculosa bulbi, uvea). Tep uvea epeoe c a oaae opaa, o aae ocec e, o oceapoaoe, eoe apyo ooo aoe oo pecae coo opyoe eoe epoaoe opaoae.

epee ac cocycoo paa ec paya oooa (iris). Paya, o o yx pyx oeo yeaoo paa, pacooea e pceoo, a o poao ococ. Oa a co popay pooy, opaea o o e, opeee e a.

B epe pay axoc pao (pupilla), oop, aoap a yx - cepa aopa - oe pacpc o 8 cyac o 2 , o peypoa oaae yp aa ceox ye (pao aa oo cpa c apao c ooaapae).

Paya coco 2 coe:

1) epeeo cpoaoo eoepao,

2) aeo oepaoo.

epe co opaoa paao pacooe cocya, o oopoo y p c xpoaoopa, opay eee yye, aaee aya pa.


a co payo ooo ae y, cyay pao, y, pacpy pao e co.

Kpyeo pcyo, pee e pay appy pox peeax, ooy xapaepc payo ooo coyc aoce aoea - poaoca , apy c aocoe, ea oc.

Kpoocaee pay ocyecec a ce ooo pya pooopae, pacooeoo y op pay, oop opaoa aacooo ey a epe ap apep. O ooo apepaoo pya oxo paao apae eo, oppye a cocyc py pooopae, oop e epe oepxoc pay a pao ap oca.

ycey epao pay ocyece po ep.

Cep paa eppyec apacaec aoae epp. aop - caec. oee aoa oo co ecoe peee - y cpaxa aa e, py coa, p cpecce, oa aec paoy caeca ccea, pa pacpc.

apoe pecoe eo(corpus ciliare) pecae coo ayoe oo, po ooo 6-8 . Ha epoa papee oo ee opy peyoa. epe ac pecoo ea c eo opoca a ypee oepxoc aa pec eo. a ac, ea opoco, aaec pec pyo oco ac apoo ea. O xpycaa ap opoca yc ooa pecoo oca (zonula ciliaris) - c, oepae xpyca.

B peco ee cooec paa:

1. Meoepay ac, cocoy

1) cypaxopoe,

2) eoo co - apo ,

3) cocycoo co c pec opoca,

4) epa pyxa.

2. oepay ac, pecaey2 co eoo eceoo e, oope c pooee cea, oec eeeo ee ac.

apa a coco 4 yo ax ex ooo, yx pax apaex:

1) epoae ooa - a pe,

2) paae - a aoa,

3) pype - a Mepa,

4) pae - a Kaaaca.

Coeaoe copaee cex yo peco oeceae aooaoy y pecoo ea (aooa - o cocooc


e oaoo xopoo a pao pacco). Copaee apo po paccae xpycaoo cy, yee yoc peoe cocooc xpycaa, o po ycaoe aa pe a o pacco.

Kpoocaee iapoo ea pocxo ae, a pay, ax x epex apx apep, o oce acoe oopeeoe oeee x ocae poecc (po). Ocoeo oa cocya opoc apoo ea, oop ooc aa po - poy ypao oc.

Ta opao, pecoe eo oe aooaoy y poo ypay oc, aoap ey eo opao aa cepe aa.

ycea epa apoo ea pocxo 1 e pooo epa, cocyoaea - caecoo cee, aea ( apo ) - aoaeoo epa.

Coceo cocyca oooa aa, xopoepecae coo a, cay opy ac cocycoo paa, pocpaec o yao o peoo epa. B x ecax oa oo coeea co cepo, a ocao poe oeec o ee y cypaxopoa pocpaco, e poxo cocy ep apoo ea.

Mpocoec xopoe paa ceye co:

1) cypaxopoe,

2) co pyx cocyo,

3) co cpex cocyo,

4) xopoap co,

5) ceoa aca.

Coceo cocyca oooa ee aoooe poocaee, e caoe c epe ap cocya - oa poocaaec oppyec a ce ax opox apx apep. B c c aooece poecc epeeo oea cocycoo paa e pacpocpac a xopoe.

Cocyca oooa e ee ycex epx ooa, oa caea caec eoa o epxeo eoo ya, oope o aooopy poecy y. Ocyce yceo epa oce eoeeoe eee aooecx poecco coceo cocyco oooe.

Ocoo ye xopoe ec oeceee epeeco a ooxecx poecco ceao oooe. Aaoeca oc xopoe cea, a ae o co pooopae (ae opoe ape apep, xopoap co) oc o


a, o aoea coceo cocyco ooo, a pao, oea aooec poecc ceay oooy (xopope).

Ceaa (Retina)ec ypee oooo aa - o ca a oa, ya a epep. B e pae 2 oea:

1) oeca ac cea pocpaec o peoo epa o yao pecae coo cooepepoay a,

2) cea a cea e o yao o pa paa, e

opaye paoy ay opeoo ea.

B yoao ooe oeco ac cea pae co:

1) apy ceoocpa epoea co, pecae aoa ooa,

2) ype ceopoo ooo co, pecae op, ao py ea.

Ceaa coep 3 epoa: ao oo, ope e aoe e, p e ceoocpae ee (ao oo) axoc apyx ee cox pea eoy e. Tao cea, oa ceoocpae ee(pa pe coy a) a oepyc o cea, aaec ep eppoa.

Mpocoec ceae pae 10 coe:

1) ca apy ee co - o co eoo e, oop pocpaec a ce poe oec eeo cea. Ke eoo e e opy ecpao p pacooe o p. e e ooae pacoppye y cea, ycpa eo yoe pacceae yp aa.

2) B ceye coe aoe ooe pacoaac ooe ee opoc epx epoo cea, coepax pe ypyp. ao coepa pooc, oo -ooc. Koeceoe coooee ey aoa ooa e ee oaoo. B epao e eoo a cyecy oo oo. B epepeco oe cea apo oo ocycy, ec oo ao. ao oaa oe coo ceoo yceoc, oecea cyepeoe epepecoe pee. Koo o oy y: epaoe opeoe pee eooyee,

3) Hapya opaa aca opayec oex paee epox ooo oepae a cea. Oa ea, oa, popaa.

4) Hapy ep co coco ooo ep aoox ooox eo.


5) Hapy ecop co - o co, e aco pex eo copacac, oapy c epa opx eo.

6) Bype ep co - o ea opx eo.

7) Bype ecop co - o co, oopo aco opx eo oapy c epa aox eo.

8) Co aox eo opaoa py ea c yxoyp po. aoa ea cyae oa c pyo opo, a o op - c po aoe ooe. opa ea, coeac c oeopo ooo, ee co aoy ey.

9) Co epx ooo coco ocex po aox eo, oope opay pe ep.

10) Bype opaa epaa - oa, popaa aca, opaoaa epoc ooa, opae ce aoe o oee ceay o ceooo ea.

Taoe eoe eccooe cpoee ceaa ee a aeo ac coe oeco o, coac epep. Ocooe cpoee ee caa epaa ee ac, pacooea a oeco oc aa.

epaa a (Fovea centralis) e a 4 cy o ca peoo epa, ee cea oaoe oepae, ey 2-3 opyea oo yoeo cea cece ooa ypex coe pe copo. oea opaye yyee, ep oopoo (foveola) ca oo ooa.

Oe eec ceae oeceaec poocaee ccee epao apep cea, a ce eoxooe ceoocp yac ocyece pex y ocaec xopoee epe aoece xopoapoo ee co eoo e.

Tp ooo aoo oa opya a aaeoe ypeee po aa,oopoe coco popax ceopoox cpe: ceooo ea, xpycaa oco a, aoe aep aa.

Paa epe a aep aa.Heooe pocpaco, opaeoe ae oepxoc poo, oe eaeo ac cep epee oepxoc apoo ea, a ae ce epee oepxoc payo ooo poopaoo ac xpycaa, oc aae epee aep aa (camera anterior). Oe oo pocpaca ay pocoo ooo 0,24 y. c, aoa ya epe epee aep ooo 3 .

e ey ae oepxoc pay epee oepxoc xpycaa oc aae ae aep aa (camera posteior).

 

epe a aep cooac epe pao coepa popay ypay oc, ee aaey aepo oco ao,oopa oeceae oe eec popax eccocycx cpyypax aoo oa. Kpoe oo, oca aa eec epepax ex, cypaxopoao pepoeao pocpacax.

o coey xecoy cocay oca aa ec aanoo coooo oc. Koeco ee ay pocoo eoea pao 0,35-0,45 y.c. e ec a 1,0036, oe peoe 1,33. Ceoaeo, oca aa paec e peoe y, opao ay p ocope epee aep oce yco eeo o o pe.

Bypaa oc a 99 % coco o. oy ac ooo ocaa coca eopaece eeca: ao (xop,apoa, cya, oca) ao (ap, a, a, a). oe ceo o ae xopa ap. Heaea o pxoc a eo, oop pecae aya oya, oeceo coooe cxoo c copoo o. Tae oca aa coep oy, acopoy coy, oopo 10-15 pa oe, e po, ooy coy, oopa opayec poecce xpycaooo oea. B oco ae o e ae, o oc oo o opo ae - oo op oc, opayec oce ocaca cee epo a.

Bpaaaec ypaa oc opoca apoo ea, ac ee aoe a aepy, epe pao oaae epe aepy oeae epe pyy oy ya epee aep cepae e. o y ooa aaec epe ye.

o epee aeppecae coo oe yoe pocpaco ey payo pooe, ep oopoo eec a cepao oepxoc e eoo. B o eoa opye py ooce cocy - a aae eo aa, cepa cyc, oop o epee aep oee cceo ex epea - paey, e ey oop oc aae oaox pocpac. Tpaeyp aapa eo aa aa pye oo ya epee aep. epe ceae yc eo aa coeec c cepa ea (oe e Aepa) pacepa eo ceee.

Kpoe epeeo y ooa ypao oc (epe yo epee aep) cyecye ooe a y ooa o epepa pocpaca peoo epa, epacyp pocpaca apoo ea cypaxopoaoe pocpaco, aee e aoo oa.

 

Xpyca(lens cristallina, patella) pacooe a payo oooo yye a epee oepxoc ceooo ea (fossa patellaris) yepaec oeeo coco ooce ooa oo c (zonula ciliaris), yx o raco ac apoo ea aopy xpycaa. Coeco c payo oooo xpyca cocae a aaey poxpycaoy apay, oopa oee epe oe aa o aeo, aoo ceo eo.

Xpyca pecae coo poooe oep ec co ea opaoae, a o, ooc pace eee ce , oao oe xpycaa e eec. ee opy ooyo , popae, cea eoa. Toa xpycaa oeec o 3,6 o 5 , aep o 9 o 10 , payc p epee oepxoc - o 10 , a ae oee yo o 6 o 9 . Xpyca oocc oecoy aapay aa, oe peoe cocooc aa a xpyca pxoc 18-22 .

cooec xpycae e acyy, cyacyp e eeco xpycaa. Kacyy xpycaa xpycaoy cyy e a epe a. pe acya oe ae. Kacya xpycaa popaa, aca, eccpyypa, ooea. y aopa a ee epee ae oepxoc eec oa oypa aca -eco ppere c oypx ooo oo c, e oa ooc epe ooeoc. a acya e e ee. o epee acyo pacoaaec ooco ecpa e c opy pa, oop oe poecy, apepy aay y. B eee ce e yacye opaoa ox xpycaox ooo. o epe poca cape ooa ooea, ep oy, caoc ye, oe oo opay oay accy epe xpycaa - po. o poecc cepopoa aaec 25-30 ee opace. Xopoo coppoaoe capecoe po cpeaec opace 40-45 e. Poc xpycaa pae epo opaa e epaoepo, ooy e oo oapy o c pa oeo peoe, o xopoo o p opoco.

B xeco ooe eeco xpycaa coep cpee 62% o, 18% pacopx 17% epacopx eox eec, eoo pa, caxapa, ce xoecepa, ooo 2 % epax coe.

Xpyca e ee cocyo epo. ae xpycaa ocyecec ye oox oex poecco c ypao oc.

Ceooe eo(corpus vitreum) pacoaaec a xpycao, aae a oe ooc aa. pecae coo popaoe, eceoe cyecoe eeco, cocaee 55 % ypeeo coepoo aoo oa. Bec eo y pocoo eoea pae 4 , oe 3,5-4 . Ceooe eo ee apoopay opy, ecoo


cey caao apae. a oepxoc eo pe ceao oooe y ca peoo epa yao oo ppeeo e.

Ceooe eo ee oco, oooy, oeo aa coepoe. Koeo aa pecae coo pyy aepo 1 , yy o ca peoo epa ae oepxoc xpycaa. Bo pe poao epe o aa poxo apep ceooo ea, oopa o pee poe ceae, a aa coxpaec e yaao py.

To, o oaeoe ceooe eo e paceaec, coxpae co opy, ae p aoe pya, yaae a ae coceo apyo ooo epa ceooo ea. Copeee pee eo cceoa oo ycao ppy cpyypy ceooo ea. Meppe poey aoe , aop, coep.

o coe xeco ppoe ceooe eo pecae coo po e opaecoo pocxoe. O coco a 98,8 % o a 1,125 cyxoo eeca. Cyxo ocao o e, aoco, oea, pea, caxap, a, a, ap, oca, xop xoecep.

Cocyo epo ceoa a e ee. eeeoc ococo eo cpe oeceaec ococo ye aex eec ypao oc.

Oco y ceooo ea ec :

1) oepae op oyca aa,

2) poeee cea,

3) yace o ypao oee eec.

p opoco cpyypa ceooo ea a e eo cepx e pao op paepo c paee oex yaox opaoa, p e aa cpyyp oyc.

C opaco eec cpyypa ceooo ea. B e oc aae oye ayo. Ceooe eo e peeeppye p aco oepe aeaec aepo ao.


: 2014-12-18; : 7 |




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