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Прочитайте текст и укажите функцию глагола "to be" в каждом из следующих предло­жений. Переведите текcт.

George Sedov was one of the great arctic explorers. He died in 1914 while he was trying to reach the North Pole. Sedov's ex­pedition was very badly equipped. The greatest part of the equipment was bought by Sedov himself as he had been given very little money by the Government. He was able to get a radio-set in Peters-burg, but was obliged to leave it in Archangel because there was no radio operator among his assistants. Sedov realized all the difficulties which were before him: to start was to undergo a great risk. Yet he and his men were fearless people who were ready to meet all the hardships. The expedition was to leave in summer but it was only at the very end of August, 1912, when Sedov left Archangel. The ship was moving in very difficult ice condi­tions and at last was forced to stop. It was near Novaya Zemlya. There was nothing for Sedov to do but winter there. They had been supplied with little- coal and food. Besides, the food was bad. The brave explorers were able to leave Novaya Zemlya only in 1913. All of them were very weak and it was growing harder and harder for them to move on. Sedov and most of his comrades died in the cold and darkness of the polar region.

4. Определите функцию глагола "to have" в данных предложениях.

1. Pure water has no colour. 2. The wind is very strong; the river has overflown its banks. 3. We have many valuable minerals in the Urals. 4. We have developed chemical industry in the Urals. 5. We have obtained salt by the evaporation under reduced pressure. 6. Aluminium is a metal which usually has a bluish-white surface. 7. Before the lecture we have to hang all the diagrams on the wall. 8. An electrician has to protect him­self with robber clothes when working. 9. She scientists have found that radium radiations have a very powerful effect on all living matter. 10. We shall have a meeting tomorrow. 11. Somebody will have to make a report about our work. 12. You will have to find out where he is now. 13. We have many laboratories at our Institute. 14. Many inventions have brought fame to our science. 15. Our scientists have to solve many vital problems. 16. We shall have to do many experiments.


5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение гла­гола “to have".

1. I have a new room. 2. I did not have to clean it; my mo­ther has cleaned it for me. 3. The boy has high temperature, so doctor has examined the boy, he has to stay In bed. 4. Every woman has much work at home. 5. She has to cook, to wash and to clean. 6. I have not finished doing my assignment. 7. I have to translate the text but I have no dictionary. 8. Every candidate to the Institute will have examinations in August. 9. Have you ever seen my sister? 10. Photography has to reproduce nature. 11. The examination paper had to contain not less than twenty grammar exercises.
12. Students will have to put questions to the text. 13. The Institute has to provide residence for all students who arrived from collective farms. 14. Pay attention to my pronunciation - you will have to reproduce it. 15. My friend has to support a large family.


6. Заполните пропуски глаголами “to have to”, “to be to”.

1. I can’t go with them as I ... to be at the Institute at half past nine. 2. If you want to understand this phenomenon better, you ... to look through some articles devoted to this problem. 3. As this question is not solved the meeting ... to be put off. 4. At ten a.m. he ... to make a report, I think it will be interesting to listen to him.
5. As he made many mistakes in his last work he ... to rewrite it. 6. Professor Black’s assistants ... to help us in our practical work. 7. The plan ... to be carried out by а group of specially—trained men. 8. John... to dтivе at а high speed all the time as he was desperately late.


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