In the Language – to change or alter.
Technically here – to change the texts in wording or meaning. This is of 3 kinds.
In the Language – to discharge and to make empty.
Technically here – to reject or deny all or some of that which is obligatory for Allaah regarding His Names and Attributes. This is of 2 types.
The first of this Ummah to do this was Ja’d ibn Dirham.
To try to describe “how” an Attribute is. e.g. To say: How Allaah’s Hand is, is like this and that, or How His Descending is, is like this and that.
Takyeef differs to Tamtheel and Tashbeeh in two ways:
1. Takyeef is to Relate How Something is, with Restriction or Not by way of resembling. While Tamtheel and Tashbeeh indicate how something is in a restricted sense, by way of a likeness or resemblance respectively.Takyeef is more general.
All who do Tamtheel, are doing Takyeef. But vice versa is NOT the case.
2. Takyeef is Particular to Allaah’s Attributes, while Tamtheel is concerned with His Decree, Description and Self.
To affirm something is alike another in every way.
To affirm a resemblance in most attributes.
Note: The terms Tamtheel and Tashbeeh are sometimes interchangeable.
Tashbeeh is of two kinds:
1. Tashbeeh of the creation with the Creator – to affirm for the creation that which is particular to the Creator
A. Tashbeeh concerning His Rights – e.g. to say that others have the right to be worshipped alongside Allah.
B. Tashbeeh concerning His Lordship – e.g. to say that there are other creators alongside Allaah.
C. Tashbeeh concerning His Attributes – to give others His Attributes that are particular to Him.
2. Tashbeeh of the Creator with the creation – to affirm for Allaah, concerning His Self and Attributes which are particular to Him, the likes of attributes of the creation.
e.g. to say that Allaah’s Two Hands are like the creation’s hands. The first of this Ummah to introduce this was Hishaam ibn al-Hakam ar-Raafidee.
Marfat-ul-Asma – Sharah Asma-ul-Husna by Qazi Muhammad Salman Sulaiman Mansurpuri)
In Fatah-ul-Bari,it is mentioned:-
1) That the one who calls upon Allah should not restrict himself to only a few names of his choice, rather, should call upon Allah using all of His names while supplicating.
2) A believer should also believe in them in true essence, i.e. if he calls upon Allah using the name “Al-Razaqo – the Provider”, he should also believe in the fact that Allah creates sustenance, and knows when, where and how to deliver all of it and in what quantity and proportion to his creations as all of it is written in “Kitab-e-Mubeen. “And there is no creature on earth but that upon Allah is its provision, and He knows its place of dwelling and place of storage. All is in a “kitab-e-mubeen” (Sura Hud- Verse 6).
3) To comprehend these names of Allah also means to try to recognize Allah. Because he who truly recognizes them, will be a true believer, and a true believer shall go to Heaven. An atheist does not believe in the name Al-Khaliq - Creator, a philosopher does not believe in the name Al-Qadir- the All-Able. Who believes Allah to be Al-Hakeem-the All-Wise, also sees His Orders and Decree full of wisdom, who believes Allah as Al-Qudoos -Glorified also considers Allah free from all defects. Abu Alu Faben Bin Aqeel believes in this interpretation of comprehension.
4) Ibn Bataal says that the correct behaviour of a believer as per the Attributes of Mercy and Kindness is to also extend similar behaviours as a creation to other creations, since it is encouraged by Allah and His Messenger, but as far as the Attributes of Power, Grandeur, Majesty and Authority are concerned, a true believer should consider them exclusive to Allah alone, and should try to develop qualities of humbles in front of Allah and His creations. The Attributes which show giving of goodness, a believer should keep his hope alive with them and try to ask for their goodness, and ones which reflect Torment, Anger and Punishment, one should fear them, and seek Allah’s refuge from them, and seek Allah’s refuge from Him Alone.
While understanding the names of Allah, one must note that there are many verses in the Quran, where the names are used in pairs, e.g. Al-Alee-ul-Azeem - The Most High – The Most Great; Al-Alee-ul-Kabeer - The Most High – The Most Supreme ; Al-Ghafoor-ur-Raheem- The Forgiving – The Most Merciful, Al-Hameed-u-Majeed - The Praiseworthy – The Majestic. The names which are used in pairs, have a deep connection to another in terms of meaning, Qualities and Attributes, and the secrets of one Name/ Attribute are further enlightened by the other, however, every of the two Attributes used together is constant, and holds its individual excellence at the same time.
Chapter: Tauheed of Allah – Sub-Chapter- Names and Attributes of Allah, Volume 4, Seerat-un-Nabi by Maulana Shibli Naumania and Syed Sulaiman Nidvi
The mention of the Attributes of Power, Grandeur, Authority and Greatness have been mostly mentioned in the Sharia’ of Moses(peace be upon him), but in the Sharia of Muhammad(peace be upon him), wherever they have been mentioned, alongside, a reference has also been made to names like Al-Hakeem – the All-Wise, Al-Adil- the Just, Al-Aleem – the All-Knower. Reason being is to clarify this misconception that may arise in the hearts of people, that the mention of Attributes of Power, Grandeur, and Greatness does not mean that Allah ever acts irrational or insane (Naudho-Billah), rather, His Torment, His Anger, His vengeance and His Punishments are always based upon equity, justice and wisdom. This removes the doubt that might have arisen had these names been used alone, that Allah can mercilessly oppress His Creations. “Verily, Allah does not oppress His creations (Verse 19, Sura Al-Imrah)”.
This is the reason, that in the Quran, when the name Al-Aziz – The One Who Overpowers and is Never Overpowered, there is always mention of Al-Hakeem – the All-Wise alongside, and with mention of Hell, there is always mention of Heaven in the Quran. Where the name Al-Wahid-ul-Qahaar – The One Who is Ever-Dominant is used, accompanying it are the names Rabb (Lord) and Al-Aziz-il-Ghaffar – The Dominant Forgiver. Where the mention of destruction of races is mentioned, at the end is written:
“And Allah does not wish to oppress His creations (Verse 4, Sura Momin)”.
Where the Attribute Al-Dhul-Iqaab-e-Aleem – The Possessor of Painful Torment is mentioned, right before it, Dhul- Maghfirata – The Possessor of Forgiveness is mentioned.
Another reason to use the Attributes of Power, Strength and Greatness alongside Attributes of Mercy and Kindness is to reveal to slaves of Allah, that Allah uses His Attributes of Power and Dominion to further express His Attributes of Mercy and Kindness to His creations as is evident from the verses of the Quran:
“Verily Allah! He is the Provider, Owner of Great Power, Mighty” (Adh Dhariyat 51:58).
implying that Allah Almighty expresses His Great Power by creating sustenance at first by solar light, weather cycles, water cycles, plant and animal life etc, then evaluates the quantity, timing and place of sustenance to be delivered, and provides the best sustenance keeping in view the so-many needs of all of His creations. Another verse from the Quran implying a similar understanding is but used with different Attributes is:
“Allah is Subtle with His servants; He gives provisions to Whom He wills. And He is the Powerful, the Exalted in Might”. (Ash-Shura 42:19].
In nutshell, the Attributes of Power, Grandeur and Greatness have been used along with Attributes of Mercy and Kindness, so to bring about both emotions of fear and hope in creations.
Attributes which show some sort of negativity apparently, such as Al-Da’ar (The Giver of Loss), Al- Muzzil (the Giver of Dishonour), Al-Khafidho (the Abaser), it is forbidden to use them alone, until and unless, the corresponding relevant Quality is used alongside i.e. It is wrong to mention Allah with Qualities which mention only half of the truth. However, it will be correct to use Al-Nafay(the Giver of Benefit) with Al-Da’ar (The Giver of Loss) ; Al- Muez( the Giver of Honour) with Al- Muzzil (the Giver of Dishonour); Al-Rafay( the Exalter) with Al-Khafidho (the Abaser), and so on. Whenever these qualities have been used in the Quran and Hadith, it has been taken into account that Qualities of Giving Loss, Dishonour and Abasing do not seem positive Qualities if used alone, however, if they are used with their corresponding opposite Quality, then it is correct, to show complete Capability of Allah. If someone can only give honour, but not dishonour, can only give profit, but not able to inflict loss, can exalt but not abase, then there seems a hint of helplessness as per his capabilities are concerned, but in the case of Allah, who can easily give Dishonour, but still gives Honour, can easily Abase, but still Exalts, can inflict Loss, but still Gives Profit, this speaks of His True Excellence, Kindness, Dominion and Greatness.
In authentic narrations of Muhammad (SAW), there is no mention of the details of the Names of Allah. But in Tirmidhi, and other narrations of a lesser authentic grade, the list of Names has been mentioned as well. But in general, scholars of narrations, even Hafiz Ibn Hajr has written that these narrations are weak and not good and not sound. Even in these weak narrations, there are changes and alterations in the Names, i.e. some Names of Allah mentioned in the Quran are not mentioned in these narrations, while some names mentioned in these narrations are not mentioned in the Quran, therefore there is a consensus among scholars, that the inclusion of Names of Allah in these weak narrations have been researched by narrators themselves, so as to avoid the misconception that the Names of Allah are only limited to ninety-nine (99) only. In fact, great scholars and specialists of narrations like Abdul-Aziz Bin Yahya, Abu Bakar Bin Arbi, Imam Naudi, Hafiz Ibn Hajr, Imam Khatabi, Ima Taymiyyah, and Qurtabi have concluded that the Names of Allah are not limited to ninety-nine only, as mentioned in these weak narrations, rather, there also exists the view, that there is no limit to the Names, Attributes and Qualities of Allah.
Scholars have researched names of Allah, from the Quran, and authentic Ahadith. Either these names have appeared in the Quran, or have been associated with Allah, or have been conveyed in supplications taught by Muhammad (SAW). An effort has been made to write each name, along with a brief meaning, so that it is known, that people may come to know just how deep is the understanding and perception of Allah that Muhammad (SAW) gave to his followers. Scholars have classified these names according to different criteria, but for ease of understanding, here they shall be classified into three categories:-
1. Names and Attributes of Kindness and Mercy
2. Names and Attributes of Power, Grandeur, Dominion and Greatness
3. Names and Attributes of Excellence which signify His Glory, Perfection and exhibit the Highest of Capabilities and Abilities, which have further been sub-divided into five categories
A. Attributes of Oneness
B. Attributes of Self
C. Attributes of Knowledge
D. Attributes of Capability
E. Attributes that show Glorification and Perfection of Allah
Äàòà äîáàâëåíèÿ: 2015-09-12; ïðîñìîòðîâ: 11 | Íàðóøåíèå àâòîðñêèõ ïðàâIn the laboratory class | Find the sentences with modal verbs and expressions. Translate them into Russian. Explain the use of the modals. | INDOOR POLLUTION | In pairs, match the words in A to the definitions in B. When in doubt, find the words in the text and guess the meaning. |