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Generation Gap

Читайте также:
  1. Generation П».

Основная

1 Историческое краеведение Белоруссии / Под ред. Э.М.Загорульского. – Мн.,1980.

2 Краеведение /Под ред. А.В.Даринского. – М.,1987.

3 Матюшин Г.Н. Историческое краеведение. – М.,1987.

4 Методика историко-краеведческой работы в школе. – М.,1982.

5 Смирнов В.Г. Художественное краеведение в школе. – М.,1987.

 

Дополнительная

6 Алексеев Л.В. Археология и краеведение Беларуси. XVI – 30-е годы XX в. – Мн.,1996.

7 Аляксееў Л.В. Гродна і помнікі Панямоння. – Мн.,1996.

8 Архітэктура Беларусі: Энцыклапедычны даведнік. – Мн.,1993.

9 Бабуля так лячыла. Замовы ад хвароб. – Мн., 1992.

10 Беларуская міфалогія /Уклад. У.А.Васілевіч. – Мн., 2002.

11 Беларускi дзяржауны музей-запаведнiк «Менка», Ткацэвiч Г.А.- Мн., 1994.

12 Беларускія загадкі /Уклад. Я.Саламевіч. – Мн., 1989.

13 Беларускія народныя абрады /Склад. Л.П.Касцюкавец. – Мн., 1994.

14 Беларускія народныя казкі /Склад. І.Разанаў. – Мн.,1981.

15 Беларусы. Т.4: Вытокі і этнічнае развіццё /В.К.Бандарчык, В.М.Бялявіна, Г.І.Каспяровіч і інш.; Рэдкал.: В.К.Бандарчык і інш.; Ін-т мастацтвазнаўства, этнаграфіі і фальклору. – Мн.,2001.

16 Беларусы. Т.5. Сям’я /В.К.Бандарчык, Г.М.Курыловіч, Т.І.Кухаронак і інш.; Рэдкал.: В.К.Бандарчык і інш.; Ін-т мастацтвазнаўства, этнаграфіі і фальклору НАН Беларусі. – Мн.,2001.

17 Беларусы. Т.6. Грамадскія традыцыі / В.Ф.Бацяеў, В.М.Бялявіна, А.У.Гурко і інш.; Рэдкал.: В.М.Бялявіна і інш.; Ін-т мастацтвазнаўства, этнаграфіі і фальклору НАНБеларусі. – Мн.,2002.

18 Беларусь живописная, Сабина П.- Мн., 2007

19 Беларусь у малюнках Напалеона Орды. Другая палова XIX ст. – Мн.,2001.

20 Белорусизация: 20 – 30-е годы // Советская Белоруссия. – 1989. – 27 марта. – С.2.

21 Васілевіч У. Беларускі народны каляндар. – Мн., 1993.

22 Вяргей В.С, Археалагтчная навука у Беларускай ССР 1919-1941.-Мн.,1992.

23 Географическое краеведение, Мешечко Е.Н.- Мн., 2002.

24 Гісторыя Беларускай савецкай этнаграфіі., Бандарчык В.К.-Мн.,1972

25 Даленга-Хадакоўскі Зарыян – Адам Чарноцкі – этнограф, краязнаўца //Новыя кнігі Беларусі. – 1993. - №10. – (дадатак. – С.1-4).

26 Ермаловіч М.І.Па слядах аднаго міфа.-Мн.,1991.

27 Живописная Россия: Отечество наше в его земельном, историческом, племенном, экономическом и бытовом значении, Киркор А.К.- Мн., 1993.

28 Зубараў Л. Максім Багдановіч. – Мн.,1989.

29 Истоки географических названий Беларуси с основами топонимики, Рылюк Г.Я.-Мн., 1987.

30 Историко-культурные регионы Беларуси, сборник ЕГУ.- Мн.,2002.

31 Исторические сведения о примечательнейших местах в Белоруссии с присовокуплением и других сведений к ней же относящихся, Без-Корнилович М.О.- Мн., 1995

32 Казакова І.В. Этнічныя традыцыі ў духоўнай культуры беларусаў. – Мн., 1995.

33 Каханоўскі Г.А., Каханоўскі А.Г. Руплівец нашай старасветчыны: Яўстах Тышкевіч. – Мн.,1991.

34 Коваль В., Новак В. Беларускія народныя святы і звычаі – Гомель, 1993.

35 Королев Н.Д. Новогрудок: Историко-экономический очерк. – Мн.,1988.

36 Котович О.,Крук Я., Золоитык правила народной культуры.-Мн.,2008.

37 Краеведческие записки (к 80-летию Гомельского областного краеведческого музея), Дробушевский А.И.- Гомель, 2000

38 Краўцэвіч А.К., Якшук Г.М. Стары Мір. – Мн., 1993.

39 Крук Я., Сімволіка беларускай народнай культуры.-Мн.,2000.

40 Курорты и рекреации в Беларуси. Ясовеев М.Г.- Мн.. 2005

41 Кухаронак Т.І. Радзінныя звычаі і абрады беларусаў. – Мн.,1993.

42 Лида: Историко-экономический очерк /В.А.Киселева, В.Д.Борейкина, А.Н.Плешевеня и др. – Мн.,1980.

43 Лозицкий А.И. Пинск XVI столетия. – Мн., 1994.

44 Локотко А.И. Историко-культурные ландшафты Беларуси. – Мн.,2006.

45 Локотко А.И. Историко-культурные регионы Беларуси. - Мн.,2002.

46 Лысенко П.Ф. Города Туровской земли.-Мн.,1974.

47 Лыч Л. Беларусізацыя: 20-30-я гады //Маладосць. – 1995. - №11. – С.187-211; №12. – С.197-207.

48 Лыч Л.М. Нацыянальная самасвядомасць беларусаў: дэградацыя і адраджэнне //Літаратура і мастацтва. – 1990. - №15 – 17.

49 Ляўкоў Э.А.Маўклівыя сведкі мінуўшчыны.-Мн.,1997.

50 Мальдзіс А.І. Беларусь у люстэрку мемуарнай літаратуры XVIII ст. Нарысы быту і звычаяў. – Мн., 1982.

51 Мальдзіс А.І. Таямніцы старажытных сховішчаў. – Мн.,1974.

52 Мартыненка І.Э. Праблемы прававой аховы гісторыка-культурнай спадчыны Беларусі //Беларускі гістарычны часопіс. – 2002. - №4.

53 Марціновіч А. Зерне да зерня: Гісторыя ў асобах. – Мн., 1996.

54 Масленицина И., Богодзяж Н.Радзивиллы-Несвижские короли.-Мн.,1997.

55 Мелешко В.И. Могилев в XVI – сер. XVII в. – Мн., 1988.

56 Мікуліч Т.М. Мова і энічная самасвядомасць. – Мн., 1996.

57 Митрахович С.С.Детский туризм и краеведение в Беларуси.-Мн.,2003.

58 Мой родны край, Бандзелiкау М.Ф.- Мн., 2004.

59 Мосты: Историко-экономический очерк /Я.Н.Мараш, И.И.Ковкель, А.С.Себастьян. – Мн.,1986.

60 Музеи Беларуси.-Мн., 2008.

61 Музей і развіццё гістарычнага краязнаўства /Адказны рэд. Я.Н.Мараш. – Гродна. 1990.

62 Мысліцелі і асветнікі Беларусі. Энцыклапедычны даведнік. – Мн.,1995.

63 Мяснікоў А. Нацдэмы: Лёс і трагедыя Ф.Шантыра, У.Ігнатоўскага, Я.Лёсіка /Прадм. Б.Сачанкі. – Мн., 1993.

64 Мяснікоў А.Ф. Айчыны верныя сыны: Гіст. нарысы. – Мн.,1997.

65 Навагрудак. Гісторыка-дакументальная хроніка Навагрудскага раёна. – Мн.,1996. (выданні па іншых раёнах)

66 Несцярчук Л.М. Палацы, паркі, замкі Баранавіцкага раёна: Гісторыя, стан, перспектывы. – Брэст, 1999.

67 О чем рассказывают монеты, Рябцевич В.Н., Мн.- 1977.

68 Очерки истории белорусской археологии и исторического краеведения до 60-х годов 19 века ., Алексеев Л.В.-И.,1968.,№3.

69 Піліпенка М., Трубачоў А., Побаль Л. “Дзе зямля наша будзе, дзе Айчына ў нас...” //Беларуская мінуўшчына.– 1993. - №1.– С-5– 10.

70 Полацк : Карані нашага радавода. – Полацк, 1996.

71 Помнiкi дойлiдства Беларусi, Мiронава А.П.- Мн., 1992.

72 Пракопчык Л.Ц. Дрэмле памятка дзён: Краязнаўчыя нарысы. – Мн.,1991.

73 Путешествие по Полесью и Белорусскому краю, Шпилевский П.М.-Мн., 2004

74 Раманюк М.Ф. Беларускае народнае адзенне. – Мн., 1981.

75 Садово-парковое искусство Белоруссии, Федорук А.Т.- Мн., 1989.

76 Сыракомля У. Вандроўкі па маіх былых ваколіцах. – Мн., 1992.

77 Сыракомля У. Вандроўкі па маіх былых ваколіцах: Успаміны, даследванні гісторыі і звычаяў. – Мн.,1992.

78 Сям’я і сямейны быт беларусаў. – Мн., 1990.

79 Тарасевіч У. Беларуская вёска: мінулае і сучаснасць //Беларускі гістарычны часопіс. – 1996. - №4.

80 Ткачоў М.А. Замкі і людзі. – Мн.,1991.

81 Трусаў А.А., Собаль В.Е., Здановіч Н.І. Стары замак у Гродне. – Мн.,1993.

82 Тышкевіч Яўстах Піевіч (1814-1873) і Тышкевіч Кастанцін Піевіч (1804-1868) – этнографы, археолагі //Новыя кнігі Беларусі. – 1993. - №10. – (дадатак. С.1-4).

83 Хатэнка А. Пра дзіва продкавай веры: Духоўны сэнс народных звычаяў і абрадаў //Роднае слова. – 1993. - №2, 3.

84 Ходзін С.М. Крыніцы гісторыі Беларусі. – Мн., 1999.

85 Цвірка К.А. Слова пра Сыракомлю. Быт і культура беларусаў у творчасці вясковага лірніка. – Мн.,1975.

86 Целеш В. Гарады Беларусі на старых паштоўках. – Мн.,1998.

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88 Цітоў А.К. Гарадская геральдыка Беларусі. – Мн., 1989.

89 Цітоў А.К. Сфрагістыка і геральдыка Беларусі. – Мн., 1999.

90 Шамякіна Т. Вытокі нашай самасвядомасці //Роднае слова. – 1993. - №8.

91 Шарпило В.В. Минск. Музеи и мемориальные комплексы. – Мн., 1984.

92 Шышыгіна К.Я. Паданні Нясвіжа. – Мн., 1990.

 

Generation Gap

Do you know what a generation gap is? Even if you don't know the particular definition, you are aware of this problem, basing on your own experience. Generation gap is a popular term used to describe serious differences between people of two generations.

To realize how to deal with it, you should keep in mind that generation gap includes several aspects: children must know as much as possible about their parents and parents — about the world outlook of their children, about relations between brothers and sisters, and also about the attitude to them of close relatives on both sides — father's and mother's.

Children demand a great deal of attention, time and patience, so, if you are not ready to devote all that to your baby, it is better not to hurry There are many families where both parents keep working after giving birth to their baby It is similar to the situation with a single-parent family, when a father or a mother hardly have enough time and neglect their children's upbringing. In such cases most of the time the child has to spend on his own or with his friends. Due to the fact that he has not got any guidance from his parents he may be involved in some bad companies which commit violence or even crime and become alcohol or drug addicted. When the parents discover that, it's usually too late to change anything.

On the other hand, there is a different situation when the parents treat their children too strict and don't give them any freedom at all. In this case the children may become pariahs among their peers. Constant bans may increase the risk that the child will grow up insolent and defiant. This causes another big problem — lying. The child is forced to lie to the parents because of the fear to be punished. It can be anything from putting on make-up in the girls' room at school to stealing.

Some children rebel against discipline and family values. They listen to a loud music, wear inappropriate, to their parents' mind, clothes, dye their hair in inconceivable colours, have all their bodies pierced and tattooed trying to show their independence and establish their identity. They want to be treated as adults, but they are not ready to take all the necessary responsibilities. It doesn't mean that your child is bad and he will become a criminal. Of course, not! It only means that your child is in his transitional age and he is in need of your understanding and support.

But how to handle such behaviour? Parents should become his close friends. First of all they should learn to respect his interests. Try to speak with him as often as possible, offer some parent-child activities like shopping or going in for sports. It is worth involving the child in discussing some family questions, just to show that he is a full member of the family. Moreover, children in their teens are very vulnerable when they are criticized in public, so try to avoid it. Parents should always be honest and sincere with their child; otherwise it would be unfair to require the same from him.

Too authoritarian parents can't do any good to their children as well as parents who overindulge all the child's caprices. Overindulgence may lead to the same results as negligence. There are parents who are afraid of hurting the child by banning something when it is necessary. Such parents risk becoming powerless in the family and losing control over their children who may become spoiled and capricious.

It demands to make a great effort from both parents and children to reach mutual understanding. There are many different opinions on the question of treating children if they disobey their parents, but every parent should decide for himself what will be best for his child and set him on the right path.

 

Adolescence is considered the most difficult period in the life of a child.

The life of a teenager can be complicated sometimes. It is a difficult age and there are many problems on the way of becoming adults. For example, the choice of free-time activities, parent-child misunderstanding, the choice of future profession, dealing with the first love and so on. All teenagers have their own views on their life and future. They often stay alone with their thoughts because nobody seems to understand them. In this situation it’s better to talk to someone who is more experienced in life matters. One of the most common problems is the misunderstanding between teens and their parents. It has always been a problem but each generation becomes more difficult than the previous. Teenagers think that they are old enough to have their own opinion, while their parents don’t take their opinion into account. It is not right. Adults should try to give more attention to their children especially at such a difficult age. Teenagers also need more freedom of choice and less pressure. They are the future of our country and a lot depends on what kind of people they will become.

 

The age between 14 and 17 is considered to be one of the best periods in people's life. Grown-ups remind it with excitement and tenderness. But most teens wouldn't agree with this opinion if they were asked. They're sure and that's quite true that they are overwhelmed with different problems. These problems're quite serious and they can't be considered trifles.

Teenagers have psycological problems which can be explained by their psycological instability.This is the reason of their strange and sometimes agressive behavior. Their agression can be aimed at their friends, teachers, parents and people around them. If these problems aren't solved and regulated by experienced specialists, psycologists, teachers it can lead to far more serious problems.

Drinking and taking drugs have become the most actual problems of the modern society. As for drinking, teenagers don't realize the harm it does to their health. Government surveys on all aspects of drinking have found that about 40 percent of teenagers're attracted by bright and impressive advertisments of alcohol. They really believe that certain drinks will make them look like they're accepted. So, we can say that the low level of self-appraisal is the main reason of drinking and drug problem.

Teenagers're greatly influenced by social problems such as unemployment, disfunctional families and the stress of getting into new college. They don't know how to cope with the problems which do not depend on them. They're badly prepared for their solution mentally, spiritually and even physically. If they fail, they can be driven to despair and won't find the way out if not helped by their families, school and some other representatives of society.

In fact, teenagers have got a lot of work. They're busy with their studies, household chores, some of them have a paid job. But there's no time for fun and they want to be entertained at least sometimes. This excessive work leads to an inner conflict which's usually expressed in the form of an open, direct protest against the world of grown-ups. The next step's the conflict with parents which's very difficult to solve. On the other hand, most teens don't know how to organise their free time for raising their cultural level, enriching their knowledge and improving their physical forms.


A common belief about adolescence is that it is the time when teenagers form personal identities. Egocentrism in adolescents forms a self-conscious desire to feel important in their peer groups and enjoy social acceptance. [ 89 ] Empirical studies suggest that this process might be more accurately described as identity development , rather than formation, but confirms a normative process of change in both content and structure of one's thoughts about the self. [ 90 ] Since choices made during adolescent years can influence later life, high levels of self-awareness and self-control during mid-adolescence will lead to better decisions during the transition to adulthood. [ citation needed ] Researchers have used three general approaches to understanding identity development: self-concept, sense of identity, and self-esteem. The years of adolescence create a more conscientious group of young adults. Adolescents pay close attention and give more time and effort to their appearance as their body goes through changes.

Unlike children, teens put forth an effort to look presentable (1991). [ 4 ] The environment in which an adolescent grows up also plays an important role in their identity development. Studies done by the American Psychological Association have shown that adolescents with a less privileged upbringing have a more difficult time developing their identity.

 

The relationships adolescents have with their peers, family, and members of their social sphere play a vital role in the social development of an adolescent. As an adolescent's social sphere develops rapidly as they distinguish the differences between friends and acquaintances, they often become heavily emotionally invested in friends. [ 121 ] This is not harmful; however, if these friends expose an individual to potentially harmful situations, this is an aspect of peer pressure . Adolescence is a vital period in social development because adolescents can be easily influenced by the people they develop close relationships with. This is the first time individuals can truly make their own decisions, which also makes this a sensitive period. Relationships are vital in the social development of an adolescent due to the extreme influence peers can have over an individual. These relationships become vital because they begin to help the adolescent understand the concept of personalities, how they form and why a person has that specific type of personality. "The use of psychological comparisons could serve both as an index of the growth of an implicit personality theory and as a component process accounting for its creation. In other words, by comparing one person's personality characteristics to another's, we would be setting up the framework for creating a general theory of personality (and, ... such a theory would serve as a useful framework for coming to understand specific persons)." [ 122 ] Research shows that relationships have the largest affect over the social development of an individual.

 


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