Slang a) special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low character, language of a low and vulgar type. b) the cant (арго) or jargon of a certain class or period c) language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense. Slang is nothing but a deviation from the established norm of the language. Slang words are either mispronounced or distorted in some way: phonetically, morphologically.
Jargonisms -The non-literary words of the English language. They are generally old words with entirely new meanings imposed on them and this improvised meaning is most important. Quid=pound; bob=shilling
But it's difficult to draw a fast line between slang and jargon. Slang needs no translation. Jargon does. When a jargonism becomes common it passes on to a higher step and becomes slang. Joker - шутник; drag - to rob vehicles; to soap-box - to make speeches out of doors. Jargonisms like slang and other groups of non-literary layer may enter the standard vocabulary.
Professionalisms are words used in a definite trade, profession or calling by people connected by common interests both at work and at home. They are correlated (взаимосвяз) to terms. Terms are easily decoded and enter the neutral stratum of the vocabulary. Professionalisms generally remain in circulation within a definite community as they are linked to a common occupation and common social interest. Like terms professionalisms don't allow any polysemy. They are monosemantic (однознач). tin-fish = submarine. Professionalisms like terms are used in emotive prose for speech characterization.
Dialectal Words -Are those which in the process of integration of the English national language remained beyond its literary boundaries. Some dialectal words have become so familiar that they are accepted as units of standard colloquial English, lass/lad;
Of quite different nature are dialectal words which are corruptions of standard English hinny = honey; titty = sister (childish corruption): Scottish: maister - mister, eneugh = enough, naething = nothing. But they are easily understood by an average Englishman.
Vulgar Words. Vulgarisms are subdivided: 1. Expletives - swear words, which are of an abusive character. They're often used as general exclamations. 2. Obscene (непристойный) words. These are known as four-letter (матерн) words. The use of them is banned in any form of intercourse as being indecent. Vulgarisms are often used in conversation out of habit without any thought of what they mean. They will never acquire the status of standard English vocabulary.
Colloquial coinages including nonce-words. They unlike those of a literary bookish character are:1. Spontaneous and allusive 2. Not all of them are fixed in dictionaries or even in writing and therefore most of them disappear from the language leaving no trace in it. 3. Unlike literary bookish coinages nonce-words of a colloquial nature are not usually built by means of affixes but are based on certain semantic changes in words and it's only a careful stylistic analysis of the utterance as a whole that will reveal a new shade of meaning inserted into the semantic structure of the word. colloquial coinages. The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. Other groups in the literary layer are regarded as special literary vocabulary and those in the colloquial layer are regarded as special colloquial (non-literary) vocabulary.
Nonce-word is another type of neologism. That is a word coined to suit one particular occasion.They rarely pass into the language as legitimate units of the vocabulary but they remain in the language as constant manifestations of the power of word-building means.
9 Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices
Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder, etc. – splash, bubble, rustle, whistle) by things (machines or tools, etc. - buzz) by people (singing, laughter, yawning, roar, giggle) and animals (moo, bleat, croak - frog). There are two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect.
Direct onomatopoeia is contained in words that imitate natural sounds, as thud, bowwow, ding-dong, buzz, bang, ‘cuckoo. Indirect onomatopoeia is a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense. It is sometimes called "echo writing". Indirect onomatopoeia demands some mention of what makes the sound. Onomatopoeia helps to create the vivid portrayal of the situation described, and the phonemic structure of the word is important for the creation of expressive and emotive connotations.
Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words: " The po ss essive in s tinct never s tands s till (J. Galsworthy) Assonance is the repetition of similar stressed vowels within the line or stanza. “… Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden, I shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the angels name Lenore… (E. A. Poe)”
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words. Rhyming words are generally placed at a regular distance from each other. In verse they are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines. The full rhyme presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (heart – part, flood-blood). Incomplete rhymes are divided into two main groups: vowel rhymes (ассонансы) and consonant rhymes (консонансы). In vowel rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different as in (adv ice -comprom ise). In consonant rhymes, on the contrary, consonants are identical and disparity in vowels, as in (wi nd -la nd, gr ey- gr ow).
Compound (broken) rhymes - when one word rhymes with a combination of words; or two or even three words rhyme with a corresponding two or three words, as in "better – forget her". Compound rhyme may be set against what is called eye - rhyme, where the letters and not the sounds are identical, as in l ove - pr ove, fl ood - br ood, h ave - gr ave.
Rhymes can be organized in a different way: couplets – when the last words of 2 successive lines are rhymed – aa; cross rhymes – перекрёстные - abab; framing or ring rhymes – опоясывающие - abba.
I nternal rhyme – the rhyming words are placed not at the ends of the lines but within the line: “I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers. ” (Shelley)
The rhyme has 2 functions, which are realized simultaneously: disserving (it breaks the line into 2 distinct parts, making the reader to pause) and consolidating (consolidates the ideas expressed in 2 parts).
Rhythm is the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables, more or less regular. As a SD rhythm is a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and its variations governed by the standard. In prose rhythm is closely connected with the metre, i.e. different metrical patterns. The rhythm of prose is based on the succession of images, themes and other big elements of the text; repetition, parallel constructions, chiasmus- перекрестный/ реверсированный повтор, similar syntactical patterns.
Rhythm adds specific importance to some ideas and feelings, it helps to create reality in text. It has expressive, symbolic and graphic functions.
10. General classification of lexical expressive means and stylistic devices
Lexical stylistic devices and expressive means are classified according to three principles:
- interplay of different types of lexical meaning: metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, irony, epithet, zeugma, pun; words in context may acquire additional lexical meanings, not fixed in dictionaries <contextual meaning>. It is the correlation between the two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. In the context the word realizes one meaning. If two meanings are realized, it will make the understanding difficult. When a word realizes the primary logical and derivative meaning we register a stylistic device.
- interplay between the primary dictionary and contextual meanings: metaphor, based on the principle of identification of two objects; metonymy, based on the substitution of one object for another; irony, which is a contrary concept.
The interplay of primary and derivative logical meaning <the meaning, which can be registered as a secondary one and which is derived from the primary meaning by means of metaphor and metonymy>. It consists of the following: zeugma, which is the use of the word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to the two adjusted words; pun is a stylistic device based on the interaction of two well-known meanings of a word or phrase. The only reliable distinguishing feature between zeugma and pun is a structural one. Zeugma is a realization of two meanings with a help of a verb, which is made to refer to different subjects r objects, while pun is more independent and can be realized within the limits of the context, paragraph, text or even the whole novel.
- the interaction of logical <the precise naming of a feature, idea or phenomenon> and emotive <has reference to the feelings and emotions of the speaker towards the subject>: interjections, exclamatory words. Also epithet. Epithet is a stylistic device used to characterize an object, pointing out some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features. Oxymoron is a combination of two words in which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense. E.g. 'low skyscraper', 'sweet sorrow', 'nice rascal', 'pleasantly ugly face'. Intencification of certain features of the object, one of the qualities of the object in question is made to some degree essential (simile, hyperbole, periphrasis, euphemism). Simile is based on the characterisation of one, object by bringing it into contact with another object belonging to an entirely different class of things.
Periphrasis has a form of a free word combination or a sentence which substitutes a certain notion or thing. Euphemism is a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more acceptable one. Hyperbole is based on a deliberate exaggeration of a feature, essential to the object or phenomenon. The use of set expressions: Cliche is a commonly used expression that has become hackneyed.
Proverbs and sayings are facts of language, which are collected in dictionaries and have typical features such as rhythm, rhyme, alliteration.
Irony is a stylistic device, based on the simultaneous realization of the two logical meanings (dictionary and contextual), but both stay in opposition to each other; thus, the word which has a positive evaluation realizes negative evaluation in the context. [It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket].
The relation between dictionary and contextual meanings may be maintained along different lines: on the principle of affinity, on that of proximity, or symbol - referent relations, or on opposition. Thus the stylistic device based on the first principle is metaphor, on the second, metonymy and on the third, irony. A metaphor is a relation between the dictionary and contextual logical meanings based on the affinity or similarity of certain properties or features of the two corresponding concepts. Metaphor is the power of realizing two lexical meanings simultaneously. Metaphor can be embodied in all the meaningful parts of speech, in nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and sometimes even in the auxiliary parts of speech, as in prepositions. Metaphor as any stylistic devices can be classified according to their degree of unexpectedness. Thus metaphors which are absolutely unexpected, are quite unpredictable, are called genuine metaphors. e. g. Through the open window the dust danced and was golden. Those which are commonly used in speech and are sometimes fixed in the dictionaries as expressive means of language are trite metaphors or dead metaphors e. g. a flight of fancy, floods of tears.
Trite metaphors are sometimes injected with new vigour, their primary meaning is re-established alongside the new derivative meaning. This is done by supplying the central image created by the metaphor with additional words bearing some reference to the main word. e. g. Mr. Pickwick bottled up his vengeance and corked it down.
The verb " to bottle up " is explained as " to keep in check", to conceal, to restrain, repress. So the metaphor can be hardly felt. But it is revived by the direct meaning of the verb "to cork down". Such metaphors are called sustained or prolonged. Stylistic function of a metaphor is to make the description concrete, to express the individual attitude.