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Metonymy. Ifinsteaddirectlynamingan object of speech we use the name of some other object which is closely connected with it as a condition of its existence, or as its constant belonging, or as a result characteristic of it, the notion has a vivid expression. And this is the essence of metonymy as a stylistic device. In metonymy relations between the object named and the object implied are various and numerous: 1) Names of tools (or an organ of the body) instead of names of actions - ‘As the sword is the worst argument that can be used, so should it be the last’.(Byron). ‘Give every man thine ear and a few thy voice’. 2) Consequence instead of cause - … ‘the fish desperately takesthedeath’ (instead of it snaps at the fish-hook). 3) Characteristic feature of the object - ‘ Bluesuit greened, might have even winked. But bignose in the grey suit still stared’. (Priestly) 4) Symbol instead of object symbolized – crown for king or queen. 5) The container instead of the thing contained – The hall applauded.

6) The material instead of the thing it is made of – “The marble spoke’. Metonymy as a stylistic device (a genuine stylistic device) is used to achieve concreteness of description. By giving a specific detail connected with the phenomenon, the author evokes a concrete and life-like image and reveals certain feelings of his own. Synecdoche -the simplest kind of metonymy: using the name of a part to denote the whole or vice versa. A typical example of traditional synecdoche is the word hands used instead of the word worker (s) (Hands wanted) or sailors (All hands on deck!). Or a hundred head of cattle, here a part stands for the whole. The same in the use of the singular (the so called generic singular) when the plural (the whole class) is meant – A student is expected to know… (or: The student…) The opposite type of synecdoche (‘the whole for the part’) occurs when the name of the species, as in Stop torturing the poor animal! (instead of… the poor dog!); or ‘when the plural of disapprobation’ is resorted to: Reading books when I am talking to you! (actually, one cannot read more than one book at a time).


13irony. Irony occurs when a word is used in a meaning opposite to its dictionary meaning (I love being scolded by her). I. must not be confused with humor. The function of I. is not to produce a humorous effect but rather to express a feeling of irritation, displeasure, pity or regret. As I. is used to convey negative meaning, only positive concepts which are then negated can be uncounted as irony. All these devices the stylistic effect is created thanks to the context in which new meaning appear.

Irony is such a case of interaction between logical and contextual logical meanings when the contextual logical meaning of the word becomes the opposite of its logical meaning.In most cases the sentence suffices to make irony clear. In certain cases, though, a much wider context is needed to understand that the word is used ironically and to perceive its stylistic effect.I. may be expressed by any part of speech, most often by a noun, adjective and adverb.The effect of irony largely depends on the unexpectedness and seeming lack of logic of a word used by the author in an incompatible context. The reader is fully aware of the contrast between what is logically expected and what is said. This contrast, this interaction of the contextual logical and logical meanings of the word often produces a humorous effect.Irony may be used to achieve an effect of bitter mockery and sarcasm as well, especially when it concerns some social phenomena.e.g. “Perhaps you had a grand passion”. Soames looked at her intently. “Yes – if you want to know – and much good it did me.”



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