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Translate the text. Zhores Ivanovich Alferov is a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and

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Zhores Ivanovich Alferov is a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He wasborn in Vitebsk, Belorussia on March 15, 1930. In 1952, he graduated from the Department of Electronics of V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Since 1953 he has been a staff member of the Physico-Technical Institute He earned scientific degrees: a candidate of sciences in technology in 1961 and a doctor of sciences in physics and mathematics in 1970, both from the Ioffe Institute. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972.

Since 1962 he has been working in the area of III–V semiconductor heterostructures. Heterostructure is the interface between any two solid state materials including crystalline and amorphous structures of metallic, insulating, fast ion conductor and semiconducting material. Heterostructures can be used as waveguides to the index step which occurs at the interface, another major advantage to their use in semiconductor lasers. Alferov’s outstanding contributions to physics and technology of III–V semiconductor heterostructures, especially investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LED's, and epitaxy processes have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. Semiconductor diode lasers used in CD & DVD players and fiber optic transceivers are manufactured using alternating layers of various III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors to form lasing heterostructures.

He received 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed and optoelectronics".

Alferov invented the heterotransistor. This coped with much higher frequencies than its predecessors, and apparently revolutionised the mobile phone and satellite communications. Alverov and Kroemer independently applied this technology to firing laser lights. This in turn revolutionised semiconductor design in a host of areas, including LEDs, barcodes readers and CDs.

On April 5, 2010 he was appointed the head of the innovative centre in Skolkovo.

Give the summary of the text using the words below: to work in the area of III–V semiconductor heterostructures; to lead to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics; to receive 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics; to invent the heterotransistor; to revolutionise semiconductor design; to be appointed the head of.

 

 


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