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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 4

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  1. A) работающие;
  2. D триггеры, работающие по фронту.
  3. II. Поработать с лекционным материалом по теме занятия, выучить глоссарий.
  4. II. РАБОТА НАД ЛЕКСИКОЙ
  5. II. Работа с акварелью, гуашью, восковыми мелками, школьным мелом
  6. III. Работа по теме.
  7. III. Работа с природным материалом
  8. III. Самостоятельная работа (проверочного характера).
  9. IV. Воспитательная работа.
  10. IV. Контрольная работа №1.

4.1. Общие указания к выполнению контрольной работы.

Для выполнения контрольной работы №4 студенту необходимо изучить следующие грамматические разделы курса английского языка:

1) Субъектный и объектный инфинитивный оборот. Способы перевода.

2) Независимый причастный оборот.

Следует обратить внимание на особенности перевода указанной конструкции в начале предложений и в конце предложений.

3) Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Способы перевода.

4) Условные предложения.

Необходимо чётко различать 3 типа условных предложений в английском языке.

Требования к оформлению контрольной работы №4 так же, как и в предыдущих работах.

4.2. Контрольное задание.

Вариант № 1

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) Current is known to be carried by electrons.

2) The electrical energy is likely to be transformed into mechanical ener­gy by a motor.

3) This discovery was obvious to be made by a well-known scientist.

4) We know the electrical devices to be widely used in every house.

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) A diode tube is a device consisting of two elements, one being an electron emitter or cathode, the other an electron collector or anode or plate.

2) The metals being electrical conductors will make very suitable electrodes.

3) The problem of using this substance in our experiment being solved, many difficulties will be overcome.

4) Hydroelectric power is electric energy obtained from water power, the latter being used to drive a dynamo.

 

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) We usually can reduce electric power at the point where it has to be used.

2) This electromagnetic field may pass through nearby cir­cuits and will cause an e.m.f. to appear in them.

3) The material we should employ in transistors is germanium.

4) One must pay much attention to oil pollution prevention measures.

5) The speed of electrons could almost be the same as that of light.

6) The work of the engineer at the power station is to check its operation.

 

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) If a minor damage occurred, it could be treated without special shop equipment and appliances.

2) If much had been done in the study of lasers by our university, it would have become an important scientific center.

3) If the wire were of a smaller diameter, its resistance would be increased.

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Conservation

Much of the world's electricity is produced from the use of nonrenewable resources, such as natural gas, coal, oil, and uranium. Coal, oil, and natural gas contain carbon, and burning these fossil fuels contributes to global emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. Scientists believe that carbon dioxide is the principal gas responsible for global warming, a steady rise in Earth's surface temperature.

Consumers of electricity can save money and help protect the environment by eliminating unnecessary use of electricity, such as turning off lights when leaving a room. Other conservation methods include buying and using energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, and using appliances, such as washing machines and dryers, at off-peak production hours when rates are lower.

Consumers may also consider environmental measures such as purchasing "green power" when it is offered by a local utility. "Green power" is usually more expensive but relies on renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources, such as wind turbines and geothermal power plants.

 

Задание 6. Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения: - The text deals with / The main idea of the text is that…

- The paper is devoted to the problem of…

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that…

 

 

Вариант № 2

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении.

1) New laboratories are unlikely to be provided with modern equipment.

2) The properties of this substance were urgent to be carefully analyzed.

3) We assume a particle to be charged negatively is called an elec­tron.

4) Elements seem to be characterized by some properties.

 

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) The electric field between the plates being altered, particles of a different velocity may be selected for study.

2) Silver being very expensive, we only rarely use it as a conductor.

3) In mechanics we are interested in two kinds of energy, namely, kinetic energy and potential energy, the latter being the energy of position while the former being the energy of motion.

4) The properties of the phosphides of heavy metals being like those of alloys, they can easily be mixed with other metals or alloys.

 

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the Sun.

2) According to the ship list the deck department must keep the marine electrical equipment of the engine department in good condition, overhauling it from time to time.

3) Modern workshop machinery must be provided on board, which can enable a wider spectrum of repair work to be undertaken.

4) Before an area can be repainted, proper preparation is essential.

5) At present most of the industrial enterprises need have their own electric power stations.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) Unless the current were steady, and the magnetic flux would be cons­tant.

2) They would have had more accurate data, if the experiments with this transmitting antenna had not been carried out under poor conditions.

3) Provided a current passes through the coil, an electromagnet will be produced.

 

Задание 5. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3,4-й абзацы.

More true statements about electricity

In a DC circuit, the electricity within the wires flows exceedingly slowly; at speeds around inches per minute. At the same time, the electrical energy flows at nearly the speed of light.

If we know the precise amount of electricity flowing per second through a wire (the Amperes,) this tells us nothing about the amount of energy being delivered per second into a light bulb (the Watts.) Amperes are not Watts, an electric current is not a flow of energy; they are two different things.

In an electric circuit, the flow of the electricity is measured in Coulombs per second (Amperes.) The flow of energy is measured in Joules per second (Watts.) A Coulomb is not a Joule, and there is no way to convert from Coulombs of charge into Joules of energy, or from Amperes to Watts. A quantity of electricity is not a quantity of energy.

Electrical energy is electromagnetism; it is composed of an electromagnetic field. On the other hand, the particles of electricity (electrons) flowing within a wire have little resemblance to an electromagnetic field. They are matter. Electricity is not energy; instead, it is a major component of everyday matter.

 

Задание 6. Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения: - The text deals with / The main idea of the text is that…

- The paper is devoted to the problem of…

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that…

 

 

Вариант № 3

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) The apparatus to be designed is expected to be used at the power station.

2) Older engines are allowed to be overhauled using hand-held heavy hammers and spanners.

3) The first six-cylinder unit is expected to run shop trials early this year.

4) The shipyard representatives suppose all the details of the plan to have been worked out long ago.

 

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) Part of the energy being changed into heat, not all the chemical energy of the battery is transformed into electric energy.

2) The first incandescent lamp was invented in Russia, it's inventor being Lodygin.

3) Some new devices having been installed, the researchers could make more complex experiments.

4) Having given an indication of the methods used in this type of analysis we must now mention some of the earlier results.

 

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) Welding work must be approached with much caution by well-qualified specialists.

2) The task of the test was to name all the known perfect insulators.

3) Special valve grinding equipment can be very useful on board.

4) To convert chemical energy into electrical energy you should use an electrical cell.

5) Modern workshop machinery must be provided on board, which can enable a wider spectrum of repair work to be undertaken.

6) Atomic power plant is to be located away from urban areas.

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) If it were not for the a.c at least 90% of electricity would not be generated.

2) Provided all the forces acting upon the body balance each other there will be no resultant force.

3) If the starting air pressure had not been too low, the engine would not have failed to start.

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите первые 2 абзаца текста.

Transmission lines

The lines of high-voltage transmission systems are usually composed of wires of copper, aluminum, or copper-clad or aluminum-clad steel, which are suspended from tall latticework towers of steel by strings of porcelain insulators. By the use of clad steel wires and high towers, the distance between towers can be increased, and the cost of the transmission line thus reduced. In modern installations with essentially straight paths, high-voltage lines may be built with as few as six towers to the kilometer. In some areas high-voltage lines are suspended from tall wooden poles spaced more closely together.

For lower voltage distribution lines, wooden poles are generally used rather than steel towers. In cities and other areas where open lines create a safety hazard or are considered unattractive, insulated underground cables are used for distribution. Some of these cables have a hollow core through which oil circulates under low pressure. The oil provides temporary protection from water damage to the enclosed wires should the cable develop a leak. Pipe-type cables in which three cables are enclosed in a pipe filled with oil under high pressure (14 kg per sq cm/200 psi) are frequently used. These cables are used for transmission of current at voltages as high as 345,000 V (or 345 kV).

Задание 6. Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения: - The text deals with / The main idea of the text is that…

- The paper is devoted to the problem of…

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that…

 

Вариант № 4

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) Hydraulic tightening gear is advisory to be used when overhauling modern engines.

2) The series-wound generator was allowed to be used that time to supply a constant current at variable voltage.

3) We believe electricity to be used both in industry and in everyday life.

4) In older machines this reversal is said to be accomplished by means of a commutator - a split metal ring mounted on the shaft of the armature.

 

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) The modern equipment being installed, we could increase the rate of production.

2) Lasers being employed in the metal-working industries, in medicine are of various sizes.

3) Water is the most efficient agent, having a high heat transfer coefficient and a high heat capacity.

4) The substance being a dielectric, no current can flow through it.

 

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) The engineers are to study the problems of using solar and wind energy.

2) The equipment is to be delivered within 12 months of being ordered.

3) There will be exactly as many current cycles as there are voltage cycles, but they may start at different times.

4) We have an arrangement whereby an e.m.f. can be generated in a coil due to the change of current in another cell situated close to it.

5) Due attention is to be given to correct rigging.

6) To understand this phenomenon, we have to carry out the experiment.

 

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) The efficiency of the apparatus would not be increased, unless all the requirements were met.

2) But for the sparkling DC generators will not be operated at fairly low voltages.

3) If the molecules of water had been divided into smaller parts, it would not have been water any longer but some other substance.

 

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

SupplementaryEquipment

Any electric-distribution system involves a large amount of supplementary equipment to protect the generators, transformers, and the transmission lines themselves. The system often includes devices designed to regulate the voltage or other characteristics of power delivered to consumers.

To protect all elements of a power system from short circuits and overloads, and for normal switching operations, circuit breakers are employed. These breakers are large switches that are activated automatically in the event of a short circuit or other condition that produces a sudden rise of current. Because a current forms across the terminals of the circuit breaker at the moment when the current is interrupted, some large breakers (such as those used to protect a generator or a section of primary transmission line) are immersed in a liquid that is a poor conductor of electricity, such as oil, to quench the current (see dielectric). In large air-type circuit breakers, as well as in oil breakers, magnetic fields are used to break up the current. Small air-circuit breakers are used for protection in shops, factories, and in modern home installations. In residential electric wiring, fuses were once commonly employed for the same purpose. A fuse consists of a piece of alloy with a low melting point, inserted in the circuit, which melts, breaking the circuit if the current rises above a certain value. Most residences now use air-circuit breakers.

Задание 6. Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения: - The text deals with / The main idea of the text is that…

- The paper is devoted to the problem of…

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that..

Вариант № 5

Задание 1

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Укажите их функцию в предложении.

1) We know these electrical devices to work properly in favorable weather conditions.

2) Older engines are allowed to be overhauled using hand-held heavy hammers and spanners.

3) They expected the testing of new device to be successful.

4) Fields of modern generators are equipped with four or more electromagnetic poles to increase the size and strength of the magnetic field.

 

Задание 2

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.

1) These semiconductor devices are made both of germanium and silicon, the former being in a more advanced state of development.

2) The machine-tool was modernized, its capacity having increased greatly.

3) Silver being very expensive, we only rarely use it as a conductor.

4) The current flow having been changed, the direction of the magnetic lines of force also changed.

 

Задание 3

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием инфинитивных оборотов. Обратите внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.

1) To reduce the power losses thick wires should be used.

2) The e.m.f. has to be continually applied to maintain the current.

3) This investigation is to be carried this year.

4) The engineers must study the problem of using solar energy.

5) There can be considerable sparkling at relay contacts, particularly when they are attached to the loads which are Inductive.

6) Soon our industry will be able to have new and cheap sources of energy.

 

Задание 4

Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения с использованием условных предложений. Укажите тип условного предложения.

1) In case electrons are negative char­ges, they will fly to the plate only when the plate is positive.

2) If a body at rest had been caused to move, a force would have act­ed upon it.

3) Provided certain initial conditions were fulfilled, the h.p. compressor rotor would be accelerated by a hydraulic starter to 2000 rev/min.

 

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2й и 3й абзацы текста.

 

More true statements about electricity

In an electric circuit containing coils, if we reverse the polarity of voltage while the direction o the flowing electricity remains the same, then the direction of the flowing energy will be reversed. Current same; energy flow reversed? Yes. A flow of energy does not follow the direction of the flowing electricity. You can know everything about the direction of the electricity within a wire, but this tells you nothing about the direction of the flowing electrical energy.

In any electric circuit, the smallest particle of electrical energy is NOT the electron. The smallest particle of energy is the "unit quantum" of electromagnetic energy: it is the photon. Electrons are not particles of EM energy, neither do they carry the energy as they travel in the circuit. Electricity is 'made' of electrons and protons, while electrical energy is electromagnetism and is 'made' of photons.

In the electric power grid, a certain amount of energy is lost because it flys off into space. This is well understood: electrical energy is electromagnetic waves travelling in the air, and unless the power lines are twisted or somehow shielded, they will act as 60Hz antennas. Waves of 60Hz electrical energy can spread outwards into space rather than following the wires. The power lines can even receive extra 60Hz energy from space, from magnetic storms in Earth's magnetosphere. Electric energy is gained and lost to empty space while the charges of electricity just sit inside the wires and wiggle. Energy is not electricity.

 

Задание 6. Напишите аннотацию к вышеприведённому тексту, используя следующие выражения: - The text deals with / The main idea of the text is that…

- The paper is devoted to the problem of…

dwells upon, concerns, presents, analyses, states the following problems

- In conclusion the paper points out that…

 

 


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