In spite of the greater emphasis on the individual and the growth of openly shown affection, the end of the eighteenth century also saw a swing back to stricter ideas of family life. In part,the close family resulted from the growth of new attitudes to privacy, perhaps a necessary part of individualism. It was also the result of the removal, over a period beginning in the sixteenth century, of the social and economic support of the wide r family and village community, which had made family life so much more public. Except for the very rich people no longer married for economic reasons but did so for personal happiness. However while wives might be companions they were certainly not equals. As someone wrote in 1800. "the husband and wife are one and the husband is that one". As the idea of
the close family under the "master" of the household became stronger so the possibility for a wife to find emotional support or practical advice outside the immediate family became more limited.
In addition as the idea of the close family slowly spread down the social order an increasing number of women found their sole economic and social usefulness ended when their children grew up. A problem that continued into the twentieth century. They were discouraged from going out to work if not economically necessary and also encouraged to make use of the growing number of people available for domestic service. This return to authority exercised by the head of
the family was largely the result of three things. These were fear of political revolution spreading from France of social change caused by industrial revolution in Britain and the influence of the new religious movements of Methodism and
Evangelicalism. One must wonder how much these things reduced the chance of happy family life. Individualism, strict parental behaviour the regular beating of children (which was still widespread) and the cruel conditions for those boys at boarding school. All worked against it. One should not be surprised that family life often ended when children grew up. As one foreigner noted in 1828 "grown up children and their parents soon become almost strangers". It is impossible to be sure what effect this kind of
family life had on children. But no doubt it made young men unfeeling towards their own wives who with unmarried sisters were the responsibility of the man of the house. A wife was legally a man's property until nearly the end of the century.
In spite of a stricter moral atmosphere in Scotland which resulted from the strong influence of the Kirk. Scottish women seem to have continued a stronger tradition of independent attitudes and plains peaking. In 1830 a Scotswoman called for
"the perfect equality of her sex to that of man ". Another in 1838 wrote. "It is the right of every woman to have a vote... in her county, and more so now that we have got a woman [Queen Vicroria] at the head of government." She had a long time to wait.
I. Понятие и признаки правовых норм.
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