|To make a product desirable it All necessary living conditions The republic’s enterprises Settlements adjacent to the agro-town Deepening of specialization in the production sphere The agricultural production The economically insolvent organizations All agro-towns The system of farming and feedstock zones Agro-industrial institutions, trade and credit-financial establishments||are must be will be||connected to gas supply systems; able to get consumer services; keen to exploit innovative technology; ensured; located in most favorable geographical-economic zones; optimized; reequipped technically and technologically; turned around; continued; produced at the lowest possible cost, with the best quality possible; integrated.|
17. Work in pairs.The Belarusian energy branch is being rebuilt to accommodate the local environment and untap its potential to ensure energy security of our republic. Discuss the problems of our republic energy balance. To reach the goals use phrases in the box and the statements that follow.
|According to scientists,…; Some people believe…; On (the) one hand…; On the other hand…;…because…; Besides…; But in my opinion…;|
1. Some the generally used indicators of energy security remain critical.
2. The country needs to retool the majority of its energy equipment and to develop a system of new mini combined heat and power plants running on local fuels.
3. Belarus seeks to reduce the share of natural gas in the energy balance from 90% to 47% by 2010.
4. A nuclear power plant, provided it is built and operates in compliance with all safety standards, does emit thousands of tons of CO2, water vapor and attributable harmful substances.
5. Phytomass is of a bigger interest as a source of energy.
6. Therefore, while being promising energy sources, the biomass, solar and wind energy, municipal waste and biodiesel fuels require big investment while their share in the total energy balances remains insignificant.
7. Today Belarus is intensifying consumption of natural gas both nation-wide and in the energy industry in particular. This strategy is justified by the fact that natural gas is the most economically efficient and ecologically friendly fuel.
8. The more intense we use fire-wood, the sooner we will be left with no forests as such.
9. It makes no economic sense to use hydrogen to generate energy today.
10. Therewith of natural gas prices will outpace that of oil. Thus, in the long run the prices for these fuels against a ton oil equivalent will equalize.
11. A radical solution for the Belarusian energy balance issue would be to construct a nuclear power plant.
12. Scientists are putting effort into modernization of traditional fuel-fired installations (boilers, furnaces, dryers, etc).
13. Another fuel to challenge the dominance of natural gas is coal which will catch up with the natural gas in price and heating value already by 2010.
14. We are set to launch construction of power generating plants running on coal in the near future.
15. The republic should reckon on its own finances first of all.
18. Read the article “Education in Belarus”. Characterize the educational system of our republic.
|The present day Belarus is the country of a high intellectual potential. The rich and specific scientific school of Belarus has creatively absorbed the experiences of various schools and countries. In Belarus a lot of original thinkers, technical researchers, gifted surgeons and physicians performed their creative activity. Our country brought to the world`s area a lot of talented persons of science and culture whose names were included in encyclopedias and biographical reference books. Among the key advantages of Belarus is the excellent education system inherited from the Soviet times when a strong focus was consistently made on natural sciences and applied research. Education is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 15. higher education institutions include universities, a variety of specialized academies and institutes for studies in technical art, agriculture, medicine, electronics, and other fields. Belarus is among the few countries in the world whose specialists have been involved in construction of space stations, global communication systems, and nuclear development projects. According to the Human Development Report 2005 of the United Nations Development Programme, Belarus remains the leader among CIS states in terms of education and takes the lead over a number of developed countries on such indicators as public expenditure on education (6 % of GDP), adult literacy (99.6 %) and youth literacy (99.8 %). Minsk is famous for its perfectly functioning educational system. There are 34 universities and colleges, 28 vocational schools, 258 secondary schools and over 500 pre-school institutions. The most important educational establishments are the Belarus State University, Belarus State Polytechnic Academy, Belarus State Economic University, Belarus State University of Radio Electronics and Minsk State Linguistic University. Minsk also hosts the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. National universities today act as both educational institutions and large research centers especially in the branches which rely on local feedstock and shape the country’s economy. Developing and upgrading material and technical basis is one of the most important factors promoting the quality of education. The universities’ R&D labs are fitted with cutting-edge equipment for research analysis allowing to derive information of practical and fundamental significance.|
19. Examine the following description of our capital. List five well-known places you’d like to visit.
More than 900 years ago, on the right bank of the river Svisloch, at the place where another river, the Nemiga, was flowing into it, on a low hill, there arose the town of Minsk. During the long history of its existence the ancient city on the river Svisloch was seven times plundered, destroyed and burnt. The last war destroyed the city to the ground. But every time, like a fantastic bird Phoenix, it was born out of ashes, rebuilt up and expanded again. At present Minsk is a megapolis, the population of which is over 1million 700 thousand people. The city is currently a large transport center with a well developed transport infrastructure. Its motorways, railways and airlines connect Minsk with all the European capitals and the main cities of the world.
Its arterial street – the Nezalezhnasti Avenue of more than 10 kilometers in length – is a unique monument of architecture and urban development in post-war Europe. More than 600 streets and avenues cross the city, grading it into industrial, administrative, and dwelling parts.
On the right coast of the River Svisloch the Trinity suburb is settled down. Walking down the small paved streets you can feel yourself in ancient times, enjoying multi-colored houses and tiny shops and caves. A decade ago the work on Upper town's reconstruction started - the area of Liberty square and the adjoining streets: Bakunin, Gertsen, Internatsionalnaya and Muzykalny lane, where a small but stylistically integral area of old Minsk has survived with its lay-out and some architectural monuments of the XVI-XVII centuries.
Near the Trinity suburb there is a pride of Minsk - the Big Opera and Ballet Theatre. All visitors coming to the capital, by all means visit this theatre which is glorified for the delightful ballet far outside the country.
Such interesting and solid buildings as the Government office, Academy of Sciences, State University, Publishing House, Opera and Ballet Theater became the guidelines for creation of new buildings. That is why today there is no disagreement between the old and the modern. Recently there were erected The Palace of the Republic, the National Library, the Moscovski bus station, the Central railway station. They reflect the established tradition.
Many people, visiting Minsk for the first time, say that their soul has rest here. It's an accurate, clean and quiet city. It's a city without bustle and vanities, without haste and race. It is slightly sluggish, slightly sleepy, but always fresh and romantic.
23. Work in pairs. At the airport a Westerner and our countryman are talking about the most popular sightseeing of Belarus. Take part in this conversation and share your opinion with partners.
- So, you’re going to visit Belarus, right?
- That’s right. We arrive there Tuesday morning and we already have the hotel “Minsk” booked for Tuesday night.
- You know, Minsk itself is worth looking around – a new National Library,
- and do you recommend anywhere special to see while we’re there?
- I strongly recommend to walk through Trinity surburb, that preserved small streets and peaceful houses of the past times……
- That seems the best thing to do. And … where does the city’s name come from?
- Several researchers think the name comes most probably from a small river Menka, not existing by now, or from the crossroad of trading ways which Minsk was at the time.
- People say that Minsk is most beautiful at night.
- Yeah… the lights bring new image of the city, making the architecture shine secret lines and shades that cannot be seen during the day. And how long do you think to stay in the capital?
- Two or three days will be probably enough.
- And from there?
- We’d like to go to Zhirovichi…. Is it a pretty place?
- It is a sacred place. The Monastery of Zhirovichi has always been the spiritual center of Christian Belarus. There you could touch the icon of Virgin Mary, walk around the Monastery.
- Great! Thank you very much for your help.
- You’re welcome. I hope you have a great trip!
24. Work in pairs. Look through the following text and render it to your deskmate.
Ask him/her if this view on our country is typical.
Дата добавления: 2015-09-11; просмотров: 7 | Нарушение авторских правLook through the following quotations and try to outline the problems to be discussed. | Match the words to their definitions. | Read the descriptions and match them with the places. | The network below shows the most important types of industry in the UK. | An international travel magazine has asked its readers to describe a famous city. Write your description. | From the History of Belarus | The Geography of Belarus | I. Oral Practice Section | Study the text and say which of these viewpoints it expresses. | Discuss with your partner if television is good or evil. Supply the missing questions. |