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Education

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Education is the process of accumulating, processing and transmitting knowledge, skills, customs, values, beliefs, information from one generation to another. The purposes of education are: teaching how to think, developing reasoning of life issues, mastering the methods of scientific research, cultivating the intellect, creating positive changes, developing physical and mental abilities. Education becomes the basis for future life and career development.

Educational institutions teach students according to the curriculum. A curriculum is the set of courses, offered at a school or university according to the Federal Standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method (on-line). Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.

The stages of education

Preschools: kindergartens, day-care centers, parent-run groups, preparatory schools

· Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of education, starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising. Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory (obligatory / mandatory) for children to receive primary education. Primary schools are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.

Secondary schools In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. In some countries these schools are devided into two types: comprehensive (for most pupils) and grammar (for smart pupils) schools. There can also be high schools (старшие классы средней школы), gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools (пту). Schools can also be public (government-sponsored/ free schools) and private (students have to pay the tuition fee).

· Alternative education = homeschooling

· Higher education is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a secondary school. Higher education normally includes undergraduate (Bachelor of Arts / of Sciences) and postgraduate education (Master of Arts / of Sciencies, PhD = Doctor of philosophy), as well as vocational education and training (a hairdresser, a pilot, a nurse, a construction worker, a carpenter, a smith, a locksmith, an accountant, a real estate agent). Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide Higher education (tertiary education = третья ступень образования (1 – primary, 2 – secondary, 3 – tertiary = higher)). When students graduate a higher educational establishment they normally receive certificates, diplomas, academic degrees.

University education includes teaching, research and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities are generally composed of several colleges. In the United States, universities can be private and independent, like Yale, Harvard, Stanford Universityies – the tuition fees there are really high, they can be public and State governed, or they can be independent but State funded.

Culture originates from the Latin cultura, meaning "to cultivate / to grow". This term has various meanings and is commonly used in two basic senses: 1) excellence of taste, knowledge and interest in arts, literature, theatre, architecture and other fields; 2) the set of common attitudes, values, goals, customs, morals, codes, traditions and practices that characterizes an institution, organization, group, community from a specific time and place.

Eating is the process of consuming, chewing, swallowing and digesting food particularly for energy and growth. Many homes have a kitchen room or outside (in the tropics) kitchen area devoted to preparation of meals and food, and may have a dining room, dining hall, or another area for eating. Some trains have a dining car. Dishware, silverware, drinkware, and cookware come in a wide array of forms and sizes. Most societies also have restaurants, food courts, and/or food vendors, so that people may eat when away from home, when lacking time to prepare food, or as a social occasion (dining club).[1] At their highest level of sophistication, these places become "theatrical spectacles of global cosmopolitanism and myth." At picnics, potlucks, and food festivals, eating is in fact the primary purpose of a social gathering. At many social events, food and beverages are made available to attendees.

People usually have two or three meals a day regularly. Snacks of smaller amounts may be consumed between meals. Some propose not snacking, yet advocate three meals a day (of 600 kcal per meal) with four to six hours between. Having three well-balanced meals (thus 1/2 of the plate with vegetables, 1/4 protein food as meat, ... and 1/4 carbohydrates as pasta, rice, ...) will then account to some 1800–2000 kcal; which is the average requirement for a regular person.

The issue of healthy eating has long been an important concern to individuals and cultures. Among other practices, fasting, dieting, and vegetarianism are all techniques employed by individuals and encouraged by societies to increase longevity and health Some religions promote vegetarianism, considering it wrong to consume animals.

 

 


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