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1. The continent of Antarctica lies at and around the South Pole within the Antarctic circle. It is in the centre of the Earth's southern part on the opposite side of the globe from the areas where most of the population of our planet lives.

2. Antarctica stretches from the South Pole to the 70th latitude and is twice as large in area as Australia.

3. Twenty million square kilometers of the land mass is thick ice which forms the largest load on the earth's crust; in some places it depresses the continent below sea level. The stormy ocean isolates Antarctica from other lands.

4. In winter the temperature is coldest on earth, sea water freezes and doubles the area of the continent: it brings its border to the 50th parallel — the latitude of Paris. The summer season lasts for two months - from December to January. When the daily hours of sunshine are longest air tempera­ture rises to 2 or 3 degrees Centigrade above zero. On a clear summer day the icebergs change colour from red to violet and the sea is green but all the rest is white, quite white.

5. A small piece of land free from ice and snow with a lake in its centre lies about 250 miles from the Mirny. The water in the lake is icy cold but the stones around it are quite hot from thesun rays. Because the ice reflects most of the solar heat back into space, ice and snow do not melt, but any object may get hot in the sunshine.

VI. Прочитайте 5-й абзац и ответьте письменно на вопрос:

Why do ice and snow not melt?


Для того чтобы правильно выполнить задание 4, необ­ходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Функции слова THAT

2. Функции глагола to HAVE

3. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

4. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции а) подлежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обстоятельства цели.


1. His scientific work is much spoken about. О его научной работе много говорят.
is spoken – Present Indefinite Passive
2. The main question has already been discussed. Главный вопрос уже обсудили.
has been discussed – Present Perfect Passive


I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-ска­зуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложе-ния на русский язык

1 When much had been done in the study of ecology by our institute it became an important scientific centre.

2. A curriculum of the new type of secondary school is offered by the Ministry of Education.

3. The research of planets will be developed with the help of cosmic apparatus.

4. This material is unaffected by solar radiation.


II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфи­нитива

1. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.

2. The Soviet Union was the first country to send man into space.

3. Scientific discoveries to be practically applied in industry and agriculture are paid special attention to.

4. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.


III. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции глагола to HAVE

1. Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the Sun.

2. These computers will have to perform millions of opera­tions per second.

3. Soon our industry will have new and cheap sources of en­ergy.

4. Of late years the production of plastics has greatly increased.


IV. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значе­ния слова THAT

1. The question that was discussed at the meeting yesterday is of great importance.

2. The work of the new device is much more efficient than that of the old one.

3. It is known that the knowledge of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects.

4. Water is one of the few substances that man knows.


V. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста BRICKS

Bricks as a structural material were known many thousand years ago and are used as a substitute for other materials found in natural state. Bricks are hard and easily fastened together with the help of mortar which makes them suitable for construction purposes.

It is well-known that bricks are usually extremely durable although they may change in appearance after considerable exposure. The two chief causes of deterioration are frost and crystallization of soluble salts. To a large extent the strength is dependent upon the type of clay used and methods of making, but with most types of bricks there is also a considerable variation according to the temperature at which the bricks are burnt. Where considerable loads have to be carried strong brick is needed, but it should be remembered that the strength of a wall is derived from a combination of brick and mortar. Building regulations define the type of mortar to be used with bricks of varying strength to carry varying loads. Nowadays the majority of bricks are used in non-bearing walls.

A brick building is strong, durable and weather resistant. It has, however, certain disadvantages. First, its foundation requires greater durability and takes up a much larger space than that of a wooden structure and is consequently more expensive. Second, the process of constructing a brick building is very slow and requires much skilled labour on the site. Such limitations of bricks led to the development of steel frame technique which allows an easy assembly of structural parts and makes possible the use of new materials.

Notes: steel frame technique технология стальных конструкций

II. Ответьте на следующий вопрос:

What are disadvantages of a brick building?

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