Subjects of legal relations are participants, which have subjective rights and legal duties.
It is possible to devide them into:
1) a natural person and a legal person;
2) a state and public organizations;
3) different communities (labour collective, nation, people etc);
4) civil society.
The subjects of legal relations must have legal personality. This is ability to have rights and duties, carry out them and to be the subject of legal responsibility for offences.
Legal personalityconsists of legal capacity and legal capability.
Legal capacity is ability of a subject to have subjective rights and legal duties. It arises up from the moment of birth and ceases in case of death of a subject.
Legal capability is ability of subjects to acquire and carry out subjective rights and legal duties by the actions of subjects of legal relations.
There are such kinds of civil capability:
- partial legal capability of a natural person who is under 14 years old;
- incomplete legal capability of a natural person of age from 14 to 18 years;
- full civil capability of a natural person of age from 18 years.
Limited capability is limitation of rights and freedoms of a person in a decision of a court as a result of abuse of alcohol or drugs.
Absolute incompetence is set for the person, who is incompetent in a decision of a court as a result of mental affection or imbecility.
Parents, guardians or trustees have juridical responsibility for children and mentally sick. They are legal representatives.
Objects of legal relations are the social things, which satisfy interests and necessities of people. They are divided into material, spiritual welfares, actions of subjects of legal relations, result of their activity.
A content of legal relations is characterized by a combination of actual and legal.
A legal content is subjective rights and legal duties of subjects of legal relations, it is possibility of certain actions of the authorized subjects and necessity of corresponding actions of the obliged subjects.
An actual content is behavior of subjects, their activity, subjective rights and legal duties of sides (parties), which are realized by them.
The moment of the origin, the change and the end (stop) of legal relations is connected with legal facts. Legal facts are the grounds of these.
Legal facts are the concrete vital circumstances, which were foreseen by the law.
It is possible to divided them into:
- juridical events;
- juridical acts.
Juridical events are circumstances (phenomena) the origin of which do not depend on a will of a person. There will be legal consequences after these events, legal relations can origin, change or stop (for example, earthquake, illness, death).
Juridical acts are circumstances the origin of which depend on a will of a person (for example, conclusion of treaty, an offence).