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Elements of Good Speaking

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Match the words and their Russian equivalents:

1. to provoke   a. возникать 1. in a fair and logical way a. побуждать
2. to arise b. хитрость 2. content. b. знать
3. to excite c. провоцировать 3. to be aware of c. желать
4. psychological makeup d. доверие 4. to reveal d. содержание
5. to hold attention e.психологический образ 5. to alert e. выстраивать
6. clarity f. волновать 6. to desire f. логически правильно
7. appropriate to the occasion g. удерживать внимание 7. to entertain g. полнота, законченность
8. sensitivity h. целостность 8. to encourage h. важный вопрос
9. deception i. чувствительность 9. a matter of significance i. определяемый
10. credibility j. заслуживать 10. to marshal j. раскрывать
11. to deserve k. соответствующий случаю 11. completeness k. приводить в состояние готовности
12. integrity l. ясность 12. definable l. желать

Translate from English into Russian without a dictionary

The Greek philosopher Aristotle described three essential factors for a speaker to remember when preparing a public speech. These are also factors for listeners to keep in mind as they evaluate speeches. By their Greek titles they are ethos, pathos, and logos.

Ethos is related to the English word ethics. It refers to the character, quality, or integrity of the person speaking. If members of an audience do not believe that a speaker deserves respect, they do not listen. An audience gives its respect to a speaker who it believes has high moral character or special knowledge about the topic addressed. Positive ethos is called credibility. Speakers seek credibility by being well prepared, by showing respect and understanding for their audiences, and by demonstrating interest in their subjects. The finest speakers not only wish to appear credible to their audience but also try to avoid the appearance of deception. They seek to understand all sides of an issue before speaking about it in public, and they are willing to learn something new from other speakers. They speak honestly and with respect for their listeners. Sensitivity and awareness of the time and place of a speech is another factor in ethos. Careful speakers talk in a way appropriate to the occasion. Telling jokes while speaking at a memorial service, for example, is inappropriate. Speakers also win an audience's approval by speaking with enough volume, clarity, and expression to hold its attention.

Pathos. Unless they analyze their audiences before speaking, few speakers can be successful. Knowing what moves, inspires, and persuades people is part of what Aristotle meant by pathos. Pathos refers to the emotions and deeply felt values of listeners—their psychological makeup. An effective speaker studies and considers the people who might hear a speech in order to determine what may excite their anger, arouse their pity, or provoke them to take action, whether positive or negative. When Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke to an audience of more than 200,000 civil rights marchers in Washington, D.C., in 1963 he associated the love his listeners felt for the American dream of liberty with the struggle of black Americans for social equality. By knowing the deeply felt values of his audience, reinforcing them through his own credibility as a speaker, and identifying the dream of civil rights with those values, King delivered one of the most effective speeches in American history.

Logos. The third element of speaking is logos. From the Greek logos is derived the English word logic. Logos refers to the content or argument of a speech. A speech has a definable logic. If the purpose is to inform an audience of a new body of knowledge, the logos of the speech includes the completeness and clarity of the knowledge presented. If the purpose is to persuade an audience to accept a new opinion on a matter of significance, logos refers to the logical order of the reasons a speaker marshals to support the appeal to that audience to change its opinions. If the purpose is to entertain, encourage, or inspire, logos entails beautiful language, images, or humor to achieve these goals. After establishing credibility and identifying with the values or emotions of an audience, a speaker then uses logos to achieve the desired purpose. Concern for ethos alerts speakers and listeners to how a speech reveals the character and credibility of the person who presents it. Sensitivity to pathos shows how a speaker identifies with the values and emotions of an audience. Awareness of logos helps a speaker to present an argument in a fair and logical way and helps a listener to understand better a speaker's purpose.

(Taken from:" Britannica Student Encyclopedia from Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 Children's Edition.).

Discuss the following questions:

· Why would you like to become a political scientist?

· Do you think it is important for a politician (political scientist) to be a good speaker?

· What professional skills should a politician (political scientist) have?

· What words can we use to characterize an orator’s speech?

· What would you recommend your friends to do to become good speakers?

2. Listening.

John F. Kennedy begins Political Career

  1. Decide, if the statements are true or false:

1. The death of his father deeply affected John Kennedy.

2. Joe had decided to carry on with his ambition to enter politics.

3. He determined to become a writer.

4. He was discharged from the Navy.

5. Kennedy chose to try for a seat in the United States House of Commons.

6. Kennedy's own war biography, and his family's political background greatly aided his campaign.

7. Kennedy quickly established himself as a moderately dependent thinker.

8. He was reelected in 1949 and 1915.

9. His neck injury, however, continued to bother him.

10. His friend was Republican senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.

11. He also sponsored bills that improved his state's conservation programs.

12. One of the many committees Kennedy served on was the Select Committee of the Senate to Investigate Improper Activities in Social-Management Relations

 

  1. Fill in the gaps:

The death of his brother deeply (1) John Kennedy. Before the war Joe had decided to (2) with his ambition to enter politics. This caused a certain degree of (3) for John, because he too had considered that field. He felt, however, that one Kennedy in politics was (4) and determined to become a newspaperman. After his discharge from the Navy he worked for a short time as a (5) for the Chicago Herald American and the International (6). In 1946 he decided to enter politics. To the family this was the most (7) thing for him to do. For his first (8), Kennedy chose to try for a (9) the United States House of Representatives.

3. Decide if the words in bold are used correctly:

In office, Kennedy quickly declared himself as a quiteindependent thinker. Occasionally he voted forproposed measures that had met with the disapprovalof his own Democratic party. He was reelected in 1948 and 1950. A brilliant orator, the young congressman became a popular speaker. His back ache, however, continued to bother him. He often appeared on the House tribuneand at speaking meetingssupported by crutches. In 1946 he was named by the United States Chamber of Commerce as one of the nation's remarkablemen of the year. Elected to the Senate In 1952 Kennedy decided to run for the United States Senate.

Cross out the extra items:

John Kennedy

3. Home reading (Encyclopedia Britannica):

· The history of political science

· Famous politicians

4. Project.Album “Famous politicians”. Using “Encyclopedia Britannica”, compose an album about famous political figures (B.Mussolini, W.Churchill, F.D.Roosevelt, I.Stalin, Margaret Thatcher, N. Khruschev, B. Yeltsin, M. Gorbachev and others). Make a presentation.


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