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Торжественный тон (Solemn tone)

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  1. Иронический тон (Ironical tone)

Раньше (в древней, античной литературе и в классицистическую эпоху) литературные произведения, несущие торжественный настрой, выполнялись в определенном жанре (эпос, баллада, ода, гимн и под.), с определенными формальными особенностями. Современные авторы, желая добиться торжественного настроя, прибегают к художественным приемам, помогающим создать отсылку к произведениям высокого жанра, знакомым читателю. Например, в следующем тексте Хемингуэя это библейские аллюзии, полисиндетон, различные повторы, эвфония и ритмизация прозы.

 

On the American dead in Spain by Ernest Hemingway

The dead sleep cold in Spain tonight. Snow blows through the olive groves,

sifting against the tree roots. Snow drifts over the mounds with the small headboards. (When there was time for headboards.) The olive trees are thin in the cold wind because their lower branches were once cut to cover tanks, and the dead sleep cold in the small hills over the Jarama River. It was cold that - February when they died there and since then the dead have not noticed the changes of the seasons.

It is two years now since the Lincoln Battalion held for four and a half .months along the heights of the Jarama, and the first American dead have been a part of the earth of Spain for a long time now.

The dead sleep cold in Spain tonight and they will sleep cold all this winter as the earth sleeps with them. But in the spring the rain will come to make the earth kind again. The wind will blow soft over hills from the south. The black trees will come to life with small green leaves, and there will be blossoms on the apple trees along the Jarama River. This spring the dead will feelthe earth beginning to live again.

For our dead a part of the earth of Spain now and the earth of Spain can never die. Each winter it will seem to die and each spring it will come alive again. Our dead will live with it forever.

 
Just as the earth can never die, neither will those who have ever been free return to slavery. The peasants who work the earth where our dead lie know what these dead died for. There was time during the war for them to learn these things, and there is forever for them to remember them in.

Our dead live in the hearts and the minds of the Spanish workers, of all the good simple honest people who believed in and fought for the Spanish republic. And as long all our dead live in the Spanish earth, and they will live as long as the earth lives, no system of tyranny ever will prevail in Spain.

The fascists may spread over the land, blasting their way with weight of metal brought from other countries. They may advance aided by traitors and .cowards. They may destroy cities and villages and try to hold the people in slavery. But you cannot hold any people in slavery.

The Spanish people will rise again as they have always risen before against- tyranny.v

The dead do not need to rise. They are a part of the earth now and the earth can never be conquered. .For the earth endures forever. It will outlive all systems of tyranny.

Those who have entered it honorably, and no men ever entered earth more honorably than those who died in Spain, already have achieved immortality.

 


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