What does heat treatment of milk prevent?
Who can prevent the war on our planet?
Why is it necessary to prevent arms race?
Exercise 2. Look through the words and try to remember them.
entire (adj) – повний, цілий, весь
acclimate (v) – акліматизувати
inhabitant (n) – житель, мешканець
medium (n) – середовище
facilities (n) – сприятливі умови
reliable source – надійне джерело
plug (v) – затикати, закупорювати; вставляти пробку, затичку, заглушку
vat (n) – чан, бак; цистерна
stirrer (n) – (лабораторна) мішалка
bulk (n) – основна маса, більша частина
Exercise 3. Learn the most common and useful words.
both … and – і… і
throughout – увесь час, протягом усього часу
as – як
for – на
either … or – або… або…
without – без
nevertheless – все-таки, як би то не було
Exercise 4. Look through the words and try to determine their meanings in the Ukrainian language.
adequate ['ædɪkwət] (adj)
cotton ['kɔt(ə)n] (n)
autoclave ['ɔ:təkleɪv] (n)
consistency [kən'sɪstənsɪ] (n)
Exercise 5. Determine the part of speech of the following words and translate them:
manufacture, supervision, essential, starter, creamy, frequently, removing, contamination, cooled.
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the modal verbs.
1. A starter should show a small quantity of whey on top of the curd which should be firm with no evidence of gas.
2. The greatest care must be observed in the inoculating process to prevent contamination of the batch.
3. Whole milk, milk which is partly skimmed, or skim milk may be used.
4. The starter should be of о creamy consistency and possess a clean acid flavor and a characteristic aroma.
GENERAL COMPREHENSION EXERCISES
Exercise 7. Look through the text. Find the answers to the following questions.
1. Is Lactobacillus acidophilus a natural inhabitant?
2. Does the manufacture of pure acidophilus milk require the care during the entire process of manufactures?
3. What milk may be used in the manufacture of Acidophilus milk?
The manufacture of pure acidophilus milk requires the greatest care, both in the preparation of the milk before inoculation and throughout the entire process of manufacture. It must be remembered that Lactobacillus acidophilus is not в natural inhabitant of milk and must be acclimated to this medium. Even though it be acclimated to milk, its growth is unable to overcome a slight contamination. Laboratory facilities, close supervision and adequate equipment are essential to the successful production of acidophilus milk.
The first step in the manufacture of acidophilus milk is to obtain a pure culture of the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus of proved therapeutic value. After a pure culture is obtained it must be kept pure as a starter. All chances of contamination must be avoided. The flasks which are to carry the starter should be about half filled with fresh skim milk and plugged with cotton. They are then sterilized in an autoclave for 20 minutes. The milk after sterilization has a slightly caramelized appearance. Then we cool the milk in the flask. The inoculated milk must be curdled at the temperature of 100°F. A starter should show a small quantity of whey on top of the curd which should be firm with no evidence of gas. The curd is broken up by rotating the flask. The starter should be of a creamy consistency and possess a clean acid flavour and a characteristic aroma. The starter іs carried on from flask to flask. The starter should be examined frequently for purity either microscopically or by plates. If starter has a bad flavour or odour, it must be discarded and a new culture must be obtained from 2 to 4 months to assure the therapeutic value of the product.
Equally great care must be exercised in the treatment of the milk as in the preparation of the starter. Only fresh milk of the best quality should be used in the manufacture of acidophilus milk. Whole milk, milk which is partly skimmed, or skim milk may be used. The pasteurizer employed in the preparation of the product must be made so that the milk may be heated and cooled without removing it from the vat, which must be equipped with an efficient mechanical stirrer.
The milk is heated to about 205º F for 1½ hours or longer and then cooled to 98ºF. It should have a slightly caramelized appearance after heating.
After the milk has been cooled to 96 to 100°F it is inoculated with about 2% of the bulk starter. The greatest care must be observed in the inoculating process to prevent contamination of the batch.
VOCABULARY EXERCISES TO BE DONE AT HOME
Exorcise 8. Do exercises 1, 2, 3 again. Rереat exercise 4.
Exercise 9. Translate the following word-combinations in written form and make up sentences with them.
1. the entire process of manufacture
2. natural inhabitant
3. a slight contamination
4. proved therapeutic
5. a value
6. a creamy consistency
7. a clean acid flavour
8. a caramelized appearance
9. to prevent contamination
Exercise 10. Прочитайте уважно текст. Зробіть грамотний, з точки зору спеціаліста, переклад.
Exercise 11. Answer the following questions.
1. What things are essential to the successful production of acidophilus milk?
2. What are the steps of the manufacture of acidophilus milk? Speak on each of them.
3. When should the milk have a caramelized appearance?
4. Why must we pay a great attention to the inoculating process?
Exercise 12. Find the right Ukrainian equivalents. Give sentences with them.
|a). odour||b). забруднення|
Exercise 13. Determine the functions of the Infinitive in the sentences.
1. Even though Lactobacillus acidophilus be acclimated to milk, its growth is unable to overcome a slight contamination.
2. The first step in the manufacture of acidophilus milk is to obtain a pure culture of the bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus of proved therapeutic value.
3. The flasks which are to carry the starter must be filled with fresh skim milk and plugged with cotton then sterilized in an autoclave for 20 minutes.
4. The greatest care must be observed in the inoculating process to prevent contamination of the batch.
Exorcise 14. Make up the plan for the text in written form.
Speak on: a) The role of a starter for manufacture of acidophilus milk.
b) Treatment of milk as preparation of the starter.
WORDS TO REMEMBER
Exercise 1. Read the words aloud several times and memorize them. Read and answer the following questions.
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