1. After leaving secondary schools a growing number of Americans go on to higher education. American institutions of higher education include: technical training schools, community colleges; colleges offering four-year bachelor's degree programmes; and universities which contain one or more colleges and graduate schools offering master's or doctoral degree programmes. The factors determining an institution's prestige are the quality of the teaching faculty, quality of research facilities; the number and competence of applicants for admission.
2. Colleges and universities (either public or private) are supported by public funds or privately. The average course is four years.
3. During the first two years students follow a basic programme. It means that every student must select at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, science, modern languages, history or physical education.
4. After the first two years every student majors in one subject and minors in another one. In addition to major and minor courses he can select other subjects according to the professional interest.
5. After four years of study students get the degrees of Bachelor of Science (B.S.), Bachelor of Philosophy (Ph.B.), Bachelor of Letters (B. L.) or Bachelor of Arts (B. A.) (if they studied Greek or Latin). Then students may go on studying and with a year or two of further study get a Master's Degree. After another year or two of graduate study and work and writing a dissertation, they may get a still higher degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.).
6. Over four years at the end of each year students have a final written examination. They take oral exams and write a dissertation only for advanced degrees.
7. Students are classified as freshmen (a freshman is a first-year student), sophomores (a sophomore is a second-year student), juniors (a junior is a third-year student), seniors (a senior is a fourth-year student) and graduate students (a graduate student is one who has graduated having taken a first academic degree and is continuing his study at a more advanced level, often for a higher degree).
8. Not all the students get grants.
9. Most cities have colleges and universities that hold classes in the evening as well as in the daytime. In this way people who have to work may attend school in the evening and work for a degree or just take a course in a subject that interests them.
10. Higher education trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors or to do other professional work.
1. advanced level – курс (уровень) повышенного типа для продолжающих обучение
2. Bachelor’s degree [‘bæt∫эlэzdi’gri:] – степень бакалавра; присуждается колледжем или университетом выпускнику, успешно сдавшему выпускные экзамены, соответствует диплому об окончании высшего учебного заведения в России
3. Bachelor of Art – бакалавр искусств (по одной из гуманитарных или математических наук в университете)
4. Bachelor of Letters – бакалавр литературы
5. Bachelor of Science – бакалавр наук
doctoral degree – (ученая) степень доктора
6. Doctor of Philosophy – доктор философии; для получения этой степени требуется написание самостоятельной работы на основе трехлетних (или более) исследований. Можно сравнить со степенью “кандидат наук” в России
7. graduate school – аспирантура
8. graduate study – учеба в аспирантуре
9. to major [‘meidζэ] – специализироваться по какому-либо предмету
10. Master’s degree – ученая степень магистра; присуждается университетом лицам, успешно завершившим по крайней мере год учебы и исследовательской работы после окончания университета
11. to minor [‘mainэ] – изучать непрофилирующий предмет
Дата добавления: 2015-09-10; просмотров: 3 | Нарушение авторских правUniversities and colleges | Oxford University | UNIT 10 | Active vocabulary to remember | Choose the synonyms from the right column to the phrases given in the left one. | New York | The capital of the United States of America | Active vocabulary to remember | Sightseeing in Washington, D.C. | Read Text 11B and answer the following questions. |