The first houses were built for the purpose of protecting their owners from the weather and, therefore were very simple- a roof to keep off the rain or snow, and walls to keep out the wind. The building erected now can be divided into two broad classifications: they are either for housing or for industrial purpose. The building can be divided into stone (brick), wood and concrete types. The brick is an artificial material made by clay then burnt to harden it. The natural stone is used for footing or foundations for external walls carrying the load. The buildings made of stone or brick are durable, fire-proof and have poor heat conductivity. The tiers or levels which divide a building into stages or stories are called floors. These may be of timber but in stone buildings they are made of ferro-concrete details in great and small sizes. The coverings or upper parts of buildings constructed over to keep out the rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to the weather, are called roofs. These should be planned to suit the requirements of the occupants while the exterior must be simple without any excesses. Any building should be provided with water, electricity, and ventilation and heating system. Getting water into the house is called plumbing. Almost everybody saw the construction of a building and followed its progress with interest. First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed; after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected be several coats of paint.
V READING Текст №8 “Civil engineering”
The term “civil engineering” is a modern one. The new Marriam Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word “engineering” as the practical application of scientific and mathematical principles. Nowadays the term “engineering” means, as the, the art of designing, constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied in a more extended sense. It is applied also to the art executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. Engineering is divided into many branches. The most important of them are civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine, and sanitary engineering. While the definition “civil engineering” dates back only two centuries, the profession of civil engineer is as old as civilized life. It started developing with the rise of Rome. In order to understand clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering. Some forms of building and utilization of the materials and forces of nature have always been necessary for the people from the prehistoric times. The people had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with nature.
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