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School Education in Britain

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ПРАКТИКУМ

по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов педагогических специальностей

 

Элиста 2002

 

 

Составитель: ассистент кафедры иностранных языков

М.А. Шургинова

 

 

Практикум по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов педагогических специальностей / Калм. ун-т; Сост. М.А.Шургинова. Элиста, 2002. 20с.

 

 

Предлагаемый практикум содержит специальные тексты по педагогике и лексико-грамматические упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков устной речи.

 

Рецензент: к.ф.н., доцент Калмыцкого ун-та, О.П. Демьянова

 

 

School Education in Britain

Text 1:State (Maintained) schools

I. Study the following words and word-combinations:

state schools - государственные школы

maintained schools - субсидируемые школы (находятся полностью в ведении местных органов народного образования)

compulsory education - обязательное образование

free education - бесплатное образование

to educate - давать образование, воспитывать

to remain at school = to stay at school - оставаться, пребывать в школе

to receive education - получать образование

nursery schools - дошкольное учреждение, старшая группа детского сада

infants’ classes - классы 1 ступени начальной школы (от 5 до 7 лет)

pre-school playgrounds - дошкольные игровые площадки

to change school - поменять школу

to leave school - окончить школу, бросить школу

to get a job - получить работу

primary school - общая начальная школа (для детей от 5 до 11 лет)

secondary school – средняя школа

beyond the minimum leaving age – по окончании минимального выпускного возраста

 

II. Read the text and tell at what age compulsory education begins and at what age division between primary and secondary education is made.

Education in Great Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5-16. Nine-tenths of all children are educated in state schools. Compulsory education begins at 5, although some provision is made for children under school age, and many pupils remain at school beyond the minimum leaving age.

Three- and four-year-olds can receive education in nursery schools. In addition, some children attend pre-school playgrounds, most of which are organized by parents.

The division between primary and secondary education is at the age of 11 when almost all children in the state system change schools. At the age of 16 about two-thirds of pupils leave school and get jobs. About one-third stay at school until the age of 18.

 

III. Find the following English equivalents in the text:

Образование, для всех детей, в возрасте от 5 до 16, 9/10 всех детей, для детей дошкольного возраста, четырехлетки, большинство из которых, разделение, в возрасте 11 лет, примерно, до 18 лет.

 

IV. Count how many times the word “school” is used in the text.

V. Find the sentences with the Passive Voice in the text and translate them into Russian.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. Whom is education in Great Britain compulsory and free for?

2. How many children are educated in state schools?

3. At what age does compulsory education begin?

4. Where can three- and four-year-olds receive education?

5. Who organizes most of pre-school playgrounds?

6. At what age do almost all children in the state system change schools?

7. Why do about two-thirds of pupils leave school at the age of 16?

 

VII. Test your memory. What’s the English for the following words?

Образование (обязательное, бесплатное, начальное, среднее); школа (государственная, субсидируемая, общая начальная, дошкольное учреждение); поменять школу, оставаться в школе, окончить школу.

How many words have you failed to remember? Learn them again!

VIII. Tell what you have learned about state schools in Great Britain.

Text 2:Primary schools

I. Study the vocabulary:

a single building - отдельное (обособленное) здание

department - отделение

infant school - 1 ступень начальной школы (для детей от 5 до 7 лет)

junior school - 2 ступень начальной школы (для детей от 8 до 11 лет)

schooling - обучение, образование

foundation - основа, базис

self-confident – уверенный в себе

to develop - развивать, совершенствовать

 

II. Read the text and tell what information about primary schools in Great Britain you have known.

Children attend a primary school for six years (from 5 to 11). Primary School may be housed in a single building. Within this single school there are usually two departments: Infant and Junior. Primary education may take place in two separate schools, Infants (from 5 to 7) and Juniors (from 8 to 11) in different buildings.

The first years of schooling are the foundation of every child’s education. To start with, there is talking and listening; reading and writing; and an introduction to mathematics and science. Then there are important social skills to develop - like being part of a team, sharing ideas and learning to be self-confident.

 

III. Find the English equivalents for the following in the text:

Может размещаться, прежде всего (начать с того, что), говорение, слушание, чтение, письмо, введение в математику, наука, общественный, навыки, часть команды, разделять идеи (делиться мыслями), учить.

 

IV. Answer the following questions:

1. How long do children attend a primary school?

2. May primary school be housed in a single building?

3. How many departments are there usually within this school?

4. May primary education take place in two separate schools?

5. Who is infant school for?

6. Who is junior school for?

7. Are the first years of schooling important for a child?

8. What subjects do children have at primary school?

9. What else do children learn to do at primary school?

 

V. Translate into English:

Говорение, слушание, чтение, письмо, математика, наука, учить, развивать, обучение, начальная школа, 1 ступень, 2 ступень начальной школы.

 

VI. Render the text in English.

Text 3:Secondary Schools

I. Study the following words and word-combinations:

secondary education - среднее образование (для учащихся от 11 до 16 или 18 лет)

grammar school - классическая школа (государственная или частная; предусматривается изучение классических языков)

modern school - средняя современная школа (государственная; имеет практическую направленность)

technical school - техническая школа

comprehensive school - общеобразовательная школа (соединяющая 3 типа школ: классическую, среднюю современную и техническую)

selective - выборочный (по выбору, путем отбора)

Eleven Plus Examination - отборочные экзамены в 11 с половиной лет

academic education - академическое образование

opportunity - возможность

to take a test - сдавать тест

to pass a test - сдать тест

to offer - предлагать

to abolish - отменять, упразднять

to establish - учреждать, создавать

to depend upon - зависеть от

to repeat a year - оставаться на второй год

keep apart - держать порознь, раздельно

II. Read the text and find the information about Eleven Plus Examination.

Between 1945 and 1965, secondary education in the United Kingdom was largely selective. At the age of 11, most pupils took a test called the eleven plus examination. Those who passed went on to grammar schools, which offered a predominantly academic education. Those who did not pass went on to technical or secondary modern schools, where the education was more practical.

In 1965, the Labour Government began abolishing selection at 11 and establishing comprehensive schools. These are non-selective secondary schools which take pupils (boys and girls) of mixed abilities and which offer both academic and practical subjects.

At present in most areas the secondary schools are comprehensive. Selection has now been abolished in Scotland and Wales, and it has almost been abolished in England (only in Northern Ireland is secondary education still selective).

A comprehensive school offers 5-year courses to pupils of all levels of ability. Promotion to a higher class every year does not depend upon examination results - it is almost automatic. Pupils never repeat a year.

There is still much disagreement about the good and the bad in the comprehensive system but the good comprehensive schools have shown that the academic and the non-academic children needn’t be kept apart, and that there are many school and out-of-school activities which they can share: acting, singing, woodwork, cooking and, of course, games. So boys and girls have the opportunity of making friends with young people from many different backgrounds.

 

III. Find the English equivalents for the following in the text.

В значительной степени, преимущественно, практическое, ученики со смешанными способностями, в настоящее время, выбор (отбор), пятилетние курсы, ученики со способностями всех уровней, результаты экзамена, внеклассная деятельность, основы драматического мастерства, пение, работа по дереву, кулинария, подружиться с кем-либо, окружение.

 

IV. Find the sentences with adjectives in the comparative degree.

 

V. Give the degrees of comparison for the following adjectives:

high, young, large, good, bad, selective, academic, different, modern.

 

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What examination did most pupils at the age of 11 take in the United Kingdom between 1945 and 1965?

2. What schools offered a predominantly academic education?

3. What schools had more practical education?

4. When were comprehensive schools established?

5. Where can boys and girls of mixed abilities study both academic and practical subjects.

6. Has selection been abolished in England?

7. Is secondary education in Northern Ireland selective?

8. What course does a comprehensive school offer to pupils of all levels of ability?

9. Does promotion to a higher clan depend upon examination results?

10. Do pupils ever repeat a year?

11. What out-of-school activities can pupils share?

 

VII. Test your memory. What’s the English for the following words.

грамматическая школа, техническая школа, современная школа, общеобразовательная школа, среднее образование, академическое образование; сдавать тест, сдать тест, предлагать, отменять, учреждать (создавать), зависеть от.

How many words have you failed to remember? Learn them again.

VIII. Read the text once again and retell it.

Text 4:The National Curriculum

I. Study the following words and word-combinations:

to vary - меняться, отличаться

to require - требовать

to withdraw - отказываться

to consist of - состоять из

to aim - стремиться, нацеливаться

to ensure - обеспечивать

to move - двигать, перемещать(ся)

to measure - измерять, мерить

curriculum - курс обучения, программа, учебный план, расписание

arrangement - систематизация, договоренность, соглашение

“core subjects” - ядерные (основные) предметы

collective worship - коллективное богослужение (религиозный ритуал)

in addition - к тому же (кроме того)

in particular - в особенности ( в частности)

although - хотя

II. Read the text and tell why the National Curriculum is important for the process of study.

Until 1988 the programmes of study varied from school to school and from region to region. One of the most important changes in education brought about by the Education Reform Act of 1988 is the introduction of a National Curriculum, for children aged 5-16 in all state schools in England and Wales. The National Curriculum consists of 10 subjects which all the children must study at school. The subjects are English, Mathematics, Science, a modern foreign language (for 11 - 16-year-olds), Technology and Design, History, Geography, Music, Art, PE. These subjects are called foundation subjects. English, Mathematics and Science are also known as the “core” subjects which help children in studying all the other subjects.

Religious Education (RE) is required for pupils as part of the basic curriculum, although parents have a right to withdraw their children from religious education classes. Schools teach religious education and provide daily collective worship. Arrangements can vary from school to school.

Schools offer other subjects in addition to those in the National Curriculum.

The National Curriculum aims to ensure that all children study essential subjects and have a better all-round education. The National Curriculum makes it easier for the children to move from one school to another. In particular, moving from primary to secondary schools will be easier as teachers will know what children have done.

Pupils’ progress in subjects in the National Curriculum is measured by written and practical tests.

 

III. Find the English equivalents for the following in the text.

Программа обучения, изменение, Государственный Акт о реформе образования, наука (основы естественных наук), современный иностранный язык, шестнадцатилетние, технология, композиция (конструирование), искусство (творчество), физическое воспитание, религиозное образование, национальный (государственный), часть, основные (главные), ежедневно (ежедневный), необходимые предметы, лучшее многостороннее (всестороннее) образование, успех (прогресс), письменные тесты, право.

 

IV. Count how many times the word “subject” is used in the text.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. What was the situation with the programmes of study in U.K. until 1988?

2. What Reform Act was introduced in 1988?

3. What subject does the National Curriculum consist of?

4. Have parents a right to with dram their children from religious education classes?

5. What are the “core” subject?

6. What does the National Curriculum aim to?

7. What is pupils’ progress in subjects measured by?

 

VI. Test your memory. What’s the English for the following words?

Государственный учебный план, ядерные (основные) предметы, программа обучения, наука, технология, дизайн, религиозное воспитание, необходимые предметы, отличаться, требовать, предлагать, перемещаться.

How many words have you failed to remember learn them again!

VII. Retell the text.


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