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Globalizationis the trend toward increased economic, cultural, and social connectedness between individuals, businesses, and public organizations across international borders. The term is also used to describe a set of beliefs that promotes such a sense of connectedness. In more specific terms, economic globalization can be defined as an increasingly international approach to the production, distribution, and marketing of goods and services. Globalization involves an emphasis on international financial transactions, the removal of international trade restrictions, and the increase in worldwide communication. It affects numerous complex political, social, economic, and environmental issues.
Aspects of globalization have existed for thousands of years through travel, migration, trade, and the spread of culture. The trend accelerated in the late 1900's, largely as a result of technological developments. These developments included improvements in transportation, printing, shipping, sound and video recording, and computer technology. As a result of these and other advances, many businesses developed international products, services, and organizations in an effort to do business in a number of countries. At the same time, improved international communication raised global awareness of important issues and, many people believe, helped the spread of democracy and human rights. The rise of the Internet contributed greatly to this increasing connectedness.
Features of globalization.One of the main features of globalization has been the growth of multinational corporations—that is, businesses that have branches, subsidiaries, and plants in many countries. Such corporations have greater flexibility and access to resources than corporations that operate in only one country. For example, if a multinational corporation's plant in one country is unprofitable, the corporation can close it down and move operations to another country where there are more profitable opportunities. This flexibility can lead to greater profits for the corporation. However, many people argue that this flexibility contributes to poor wages and working conditions in the countries in which operations take place.
Another major element of globalization is the reduction and elimination of trade restrictions between various countries and regions. For example, many such restrictions have been eliminated by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The World Trade Organization (WTO) also aims to encourage the free flow of raw materials, components, finished products, and services between countries of the world.
Other powerful international organizations besides the WTO have played an important role in globalization. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for example, develop economic policies and encourage global cooperation. The United Nations (UN) works to achieve peace and human dignity throughout the world. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and other UN agencies work to solve problems, such as disease and hunger, that affect people in many countries.
The effects of globalization are complicated and diverse. For instance, globalization has helped spread ideas, scientific advances, and new technologies throughout the world. However, it has also contributed to the spread of military weaponry and technology, thereby complicating many conflicts. Many people believe that globalization makes all parts of the world more similar, thereby reducing cultural diversity.
The debate over globalization.Many people see globalization as a positive step toward a "global village' that greatly benefits from worldwide cooperation. Supporters believe that the development of a global economy makes the world more prosperous and efficient. In addition, globalization can promote peace, supporters claim, by reducing tension between governments.
Opponents of globalization argue that the process enables powerful nations to take advantage of weaker ones, gives excessive power to corporate interests, Weakens labor protections, and interferes with the governmental processes of individual countries. Many people believe that globalization threatens democracy, because governments and voters do not determine certain decisions. They believe that globalization may cause corporations to move plants to countries with poor labor relations and loose environmental regulation. The latter could make conservation of the world's resources more difficult.
In the 1990s and early 2000's, these and related concerns led to antiglobalization protests at high-profile meetings of economists and government leaders.
Match a line in A with a line in B. Use your dictionary if necessary.
|A 1. reduce 2. promote 3. global 4. take 5. determine 6. environmental 7. financial 8. international 9. do scientific||B a) peace b) cooperation c) decisions d) regulation e) advantage f) tension g) advances h) transactions i) business j) approach|
Fill the gaps using these key words from the text.
opponent dignity eliminate
encourage trend restriction
1. is a person who disagrees with a plan, idea and wants to try and stop it.
2. Even in a very difficult situation we try to retain some human .
3. When we say or do something that helps a man have courage or confidence to do something, we him.
4. A general tendency in the way a situation is changing or developing means .
5. If we want completely get rid of something that is unpleasant, unnecessary or unwanted we it.
6. It is a rule or system that limits or controls what you can do or what is allowed to happen. In other words it is a .
1. Find a verb which means “to get rid of”.
2. Find a verb which means “to influence”.
3. Find a noun which means the ability to change.
4. Find an adjective which means “successful and rich”.
5. Find a noun which means “variety”.
1. What do the following abbreviations stand for?
a. GATT NAFTA WTO UN FAO
2. What is their role in the process of globalization?
Answer the following questions
1. What is implied under the term “globalization”?
2. Is globalization the product of the 20-th century? Why do you think so?
3. What are arguments pro and against globalization?
4. Comment the following: “The only alternative to co-existence is co-destruction”. (Pandit Nehru).
Translate the following text into English.
Многие авторы полагают, что процесс глобализации следует представлять отнюдь не только как распространение особого типа капитализма и гомогенизацию мирового пространства. По их мнению, глобализация происходит наряду с «глокализацией», то есть адаптацией культурных элементов к различным локальным условиям на основе местных традиций. Поэтому происходит не стандартизация, а утверждение гетерогенности жизнедеятельности как нормативного стандарта. В процессе формирования новой мировой культуры сочетаются принципы культурной гомогенности и гетерогенности. Это делает возможным не только сохранение, но и возрождение традиций. Поэтому культурологи настойчиво утверждают принципы «селективного восприятия» и «селективного освоения» культурных элементов в процессе взаимодействия и сохранения принципов культурной самобытности.
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