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The style of official documents.

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The style of official documency is described as covering sev.varieties differentiated according to the domain of communication. They are business documents, legal, diplomatic,military doc-s

The main function to reach agreement between the contracted parties. It predetermines the ling.pecularities.

In its vocabulary – a lot of terms,terminal expressions,phrasal units,set formulas(e.g. to state and affirm, on behalf of). The voc. of that style changes very slowly,opposing the general trend of the L.forwards change.Besides the special voc. that style has a feature common to all the varieties – the use of: abbreviations, conventional forms,contractions,etc.

Ws are mainly in their denotational meaning.Ws with connotational meaning are not allowed

The syntactical level:long and involved sentences. Almost every type of document gas its own compositional design.(e.g. compositional pattern of business letters)

All these linguistic qualities are true when some experts write experts.In official doc-t the aim of communication is achieved be using the L.which is not understandable by ordinary people.

When any documents are addressed to non-experts,to lay-public(дилетант) then the quiding primciples are different.Plain English, avoid technical terms,try to address thereader personally.Sentences are short and compact,parts of the sent. aren`t eparated,as they are closely related to each other.

Business correspondence is characterized by a serious formal tone,the use of polite forms and formal L. Coll.expressions,slang should be avoided,e.g. to whom it may concern

The general principles of busin. commmunication:

- message must be clear,concise,polite;

- any criticism should be avoided.

The English legal language

The law is a profession of Ws,language is very important.

It is a form of L,whichh is as far removed as possible from informal spontaneous conversation,scholars say,that to speak of legal L as communicative means, is rather misleading.It`s the least communicative L.

Characteristics:

· Common Ws with uncommon meaning(e.g. avoid=cancel,action=law suit)

· Old and ME Ws (e.g. aforeset – выше упомянутые; hereafter=здесь и дальше)

· Latin Ws and phrases (e.g. ex past factor; in personam)

· French borrowings (e.g. fee simple)

· Technical term with precise meaning(e.g. bail,appeal,defendant)

· Less precise terms and idioms (e.g. alleged,issue of law,objection)

· Formal or ceremonial Ws and construction(which can be used in spoken court L – e.g. sign; you may approach the bench, the truth,the whole truth and nothin but the truth)

· the conscious use od vague phrases to allow a xertain degree of flexibility (e.g. as soon as possible; an adequate cause)

· the use of Ws to express precise meaning (e.g. irrevocable)

 

In general legal documents are charecterised by: wordiness(e.g. null and void), lack of clarity.

 

The integrating features of all subcodes,emanating from the general aim of eagreement between parties,remain the following:

1. conventionality of expression;

2. absence of any emotiveness;

3. the encoded character of language symbols(including abbreviations) and

4. a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncements inti one sentence.

 




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