Although the average citizen is usually annoyed by all the advertisements printed in newspapers and magazines and the commercials broadcast on TV, the impact of the whole advertising industry on a single person is immense and plays a very important role in our lives. Advertising absorbs vast sums of money but it is useful to the community. What are the functions of advertisements? The first one to mention is to inform. A lot of the information people have about household devices, cars, building materials, electronic equipment, cosmetics, detergents and food is largely derived from the advertisements they read. Advertisements introduce them to new products or remind them of the existing ones. The second function is to sell. The products are shown from the best point of view and the potential buyer, on having entered the store, unconsciously chooses the advertised products. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum, because the colorful TV commercials convince him of the best qualities of the product. Even cigarettes or sweets or alcohol are associated with the good values of human life such as joy, freedom, love and happiness, and just those associations make a person choose the advertised products. The aim of a good advertisement is to create a consumer demand to buy the advertised product or service. Children are good example as they usually want the particular kind of chocolate or toy or chewing-gum. Being naive they cannot evaluate objectively what is truthful and what is exaggerated and select the really good products unless they buy the goods and check for themselves. Thirdly, since the majority of advertisements are printed in our press we pay less for newspapers and magazines, also TV in most countries in cheap. The public advertising seen on street hoardings, railway stations and buildings makes people's life more joyful. Moreover, all those small ads in the press concerning "employment", "education" and "For sale and wanted" columns, help ordinary people to find a better job or a better employee, to sell or to buy their second-hand things and find services, or learn about educational facilities, social events such as, concerts, theatre plays, football matches, and to announce births, marriages and deaths. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded by all the advertisers' information we must admit that they do perform a useful service to society, and advertisements are an essential part of our everyday life.
People economic activity
to acquire – набувати, одержувати
vague – невиразний, неясний
scarcity - недостатня кількість, дефіцит
to deprive – позбавляти
satiety – насичення, пересичення
to evaluate - оцінювати
assets – майно, активи
to distribute – розподіляти
wealth – багатство, достаток
stock of goods- запас течей
welfare – добробут, достаток
to attain – досягати, добиватися
expenditure - витрати
Economics is as old as the human race: it is probably the first art which men acquired. When some cavemen went out to hunt while others remained to defend the fire or when skins were traded for flint axes we had economics. But economics as an academic discipline is 2 centuries old. The first scientist who made extraordinary contributions in economics was Adam Smith. He was born in a small fishing town nearEdinburgh, Scotland. At the age of 28 Adam Smith became Professor of Logic at the University of Glasgow. Some time later he became a tutor to a wealthy Scottish duke. Then he received a grant and with the financial security of this grant, Smith devoted 10 years to writing his work "The Wealth of Nations" which founded economic science. It was published in 1776. His contribution was to analyse the way that markets organized economic life and produced rapid economic growth. He showed that a system of prices and markets is able to coordinate people and business without any central direction.
Since that time the subject has developed rapidly and there are now many branches of the subject such as microeconomics, international economics and econometrics as well as many competing schools of thought.
Economics is a comprehensive theory of how society works. But as such it is difficult to define. The great classical economist Alfred Marshall defined economics as "the study of a man in the everyday business of life".
This i s rather too v ague a definition. Any d efinition should take account o f the guiding idea in economics, which is scarcity. Virtually everything is scarce; not just diamonds or oil but also bread and water. How can we say this? The answer is that one only has to look around the world to realize that there are not enough resources to give people all they want. It is not only the very poor who feel deprived, even the relatively well-off seem to want more. Thus when we use the word 'scarcity' we mean that: